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Pig'Insight : données individuelles pour la détection précoce de pathologie

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Michel Marcon, Journée "Fermes numériques", "êtes-vous technocompatibles" (capteurs, données, robotique, imagerie), jeudi 4 avril 2019, Locminé (France), 8 pages

PDF icon Michel Marcon, Journée "Fermes numériques", 4 avril 2019, 8 pages
2019

Alimentation durable et élevages porcins

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Visuels d'intervention par Sandrine Espagnol, Space 2019, 10-13 septembre 2019, Rennes (Matinales de l'Ifip), 5 pages

PDF icon Sandrine Espagnol, Space 2019, 10-13 septembre 2019, Rennes (Matinales de l'Ifip), 5 pages
2019

Development of a quantative PCR method coupled with PMA to quantify viable Salmonella spp. cells in the pork supply chain

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Sabine Jeuge et al., 13e SafePork, 26-29 août 2019, Berlin, Allemagne

In 2017, Salmonella spp. was implied in 30% of foodborne diseases in France (SPF, 2019). Few data on the contamination levels of Salmonella spp., are available along the pork supply chain. The protocol of the standard method (ISO/TS 6579-2:2012) is time-consuming and culture-based methods using chromogenic media are less efficient for matrices with high levels of back ground flora, and for recovering stressed cells. Along the food chain, the cells may be impacted by various stresses (e.g. chemical or thermal), which may lead to physiological changes and the emergence of viable but non-culturable cells (VBNCs).

PDF icon Sabine Jeuge et al., 13e SafePork, 26-29 août 2019, Berlin, Allemagne
2019

A Salmonella database to monitor and centralize regulatory own-checks results (CE) n° 2073/2005 obtained by slaugterhouse

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Sabine Itié-Hafez (Ministère de l'Agriculture) et Alain Le Roux (Ifip), 13e SafePork, 26-29 août 2019, Berlin, Allemagne, poster

Salmonellosis is a major cause of foodborne outbreaks caused by bacteria in Europe. In 2014, the European Commission reinforced the survey of this contaminant in the pig and pork industry by the competent authority. In this context, French General Directorate for Food required a new system to centralize regulatory own-checks results for Salmonella in pig carcasses.

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2019

Ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in a pig slaughterbouse

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Arnaud Bridier (Anses) et al., 13e SafePork, 26-29 août 2019, Berlin, Allemagne

Salmonella: a public health issue
• 1st pathogen in terms of deaths related to contaminated food in France
• > 90 000 salmonellosis per year in Europe
• Multi resistance to antibiotics in the food chain
• Role of cleaning and disinfection (C&D) procedures in the selection of antibiotics resistant bacteria ?

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2019

Measuring particles in pig housing

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Solène Lagadec (CRAB) et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 484, poster

Livestock contributes to the emission of particles in the atmosphere. Literature shows drastic differences between emission factors by animal category related to the measurement methodologies applied. Based on this observation, a project involving research and development organizations has been developed in order to develop a measurement protocol strictly adapted to pig building conditions. The project is organized in 3 steps: (1) identification of specific conditions related to pig building; (2) analysis of metrology equipment able of adapting to these conditions; and (3) development of a protocol adapted to the equipment identified in the previous step. Conclusions of the first step (1) are the following ones: ammonia concentration inside piggery vary between 0 and 50 ppm, relative humidity between 70 and 100% and temperature between -10 and +40 °C. TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 should be measured continuously in the ambience, in the extracted duct and outside. Massic concentrations but also concentration in number of particles per volume unit should be measured. In order to analyse morphology of particles, sampling should be possible.
Analysis of measurement equipment – step (2) – led to choose the optical measurement methodology applied in the GRIMM 1.109 (Intertek). Nevertheless, in order to validate collected data, gravimetric method with simple filter will also be applied. For particle measurements, 24 h sampling period should be achieved in the middle of the corridor (1-1.50 m high). This duration has been chosen in order to integrate diurnal and nocturnal changes inside piggeries.
To calculate the emission factor per fattening pig, three periods (between 14-18 days, 45-50 days and 78-82 days) were identified for measuring particles. The project is currently in progress with the second phase consisting of the implementation of this protocol in commercial pig farms in Western France.

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2019

Antimicrobial usage evolution between 2010, 2013 and 2016 in a group of French pig farms

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Anne Hémonic et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 545

Monitoring antimicrobial usage in pig farms is a key element of a reduction plan. The objective of this study was to analyse the antimicrobial usage evolution in the same farms between 2010-2013-2016 and to identify the factors of variations. The study monitored antimicrobial usage by weight group in 2016 in 33 farrow-to-finish farms in the West of France. The antimicrobial usage had ever been registered twice for 23 of them in 2010 and 2013 and once for 10 of them in 2013. It was quantified by the number of Course Doses per produced pig per year (nCD/pig). Farmers were asked about the factors that could explain the evolution between 2013-2016. On average, antimicrobial usage significantly decreased over six years (-38%). However, a high variability of individual evolutions was observed: among the 23 farms with three annual data, 43% decreased their use between 2010-2013 (-3 nCD/pig on average) but had a stable use between 2013-2016 (-0,2 nCD/pig). 26% decreased their use between 2010-2013 (-4 nCD/pig on average) and also between 2013-2016 (-2 nCD/pig). 9% increased then decreased their use during the two periods (+4 then -7 nCD/pig). One farm had the opposite trajectory (-9 then +2 nCD/pig) and another always increased its use (+2 then +5 nCD/pig). Among the 33 farms with data in 2013-2016, 36% decreased their use (-2 nCD/pig on average), 39% had a stable use and 24% increased their use (+3 nCD/pig). For sows, suckling piglets and fattening pigs, most of the farms had stable usage between 2013-2016. Only antimicrobial usage for weaned piglets was more frequently reduced. Increases were explained by occurrence of sanitary problems (mainly urogenital, digestive and respiratory problems on sows, piglets and fatteners respectively). Decreases were explained by vaccination, stop of preventive treatments and improvement of herd management. This study highlights the variability of individual trajectories in antimicrobial usage, due to sanitary issues that may be different according to each weight group. It usefully complements the monitoring of average evolution at the country level.

PDF icon Anne Hémonic et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 545
2019

Early disease detection for weaned piglet based on live weight, feeding and drinking behaviour

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Michel Marcon et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 547

Early disease detection is one of the key to effective disease control in farms and reducing antibiotics usage. A batch of 153 weaned piglets was used to test a first machine learning algorithm in order to predict the individual health state of each animal. In order to build the early disease detection algorithm, nine boxes of 17 piglets has been set up with automata. In real time within this section we knew the number of times each animal went to the drinker or the feeder, the quantity of water and feed it took and its weight. As the golden standard to know either a piglet seems healthy or not, the clinical signs will be observed by trained operators on each pig every workday and recorded on a standardized grid (diarrhoea, cough, lameness…). Then, data collected from this batch of 153 piglets were used to create an algorithm with the software R, based on bagging and random forest machine-learning method. The database was split into learning (70%) and testing (30%). We obtained a global success of 86% of good prediction. 
In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a second batch of 153 piglets was used. Every day, a list of predicted sick pigs was printed automatically, indicating the individual identification of the animal, and its pen. Then, the results of these predictions were compared with the golden standard (observations of clinical signs by trained operators). Out of 3,437 observations (including predictions that the piglet is not sick), the algorithm correctly predicted the status of the piglets 2,462 times. Artificial intelligence has made 72% of good predictions. Regarding the true positive results, 96 alerts out of 117 were actually associated with observations of animals suffering mainly
from diarrhoea within two days (82% of success). Now, the aim is to improve this algorithm in different ways: to test accelerometers to check the activity of each piglet; to be more accurate on recording cough by a microphone (SOMO, Soundtalks); to test if some trajectories of behavioural change are linked to specific diseases (lameness, digestive or respiratory disease) and not only to generic disease. These studies will be part of the Healthylivestock project (EC funded H2020 research project).

PDF icon Mchel Marcon et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 547
2019

Effect of a beneficial flora colonization of pen surfaces on health and performance of pig weaners

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Eric Royer (ancien Ifip, aujourd'hui Idele) et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 octobre 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 566

The objective was to test the effects of a positive biofilm formation on the surfaces of post-weaning piglet facilities.
In total, 494 piglets were used in two experiments using a sanitary challenge. 48 h (d-2) before introduction of piglets, 2 identical rooms of 14 pens were sprayed either with water (Control) or a mix (LP) of selected bacteria strains.
Rooms were exchanged between Exp.1 and Exp.2. In Exp.1 rooms were sprayed again at d 15 and in Exp.2 at d 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Environmental challenge for piglets was stronger in Exp.1 than in Exp.2. Wiping samples indicated significantly (P<0.05) higher loads of aerobic bacteria (Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus spp.) in LP pen surfaces in Exp.1 at d 0, 5, and 14 and at d 0, 5, 7 and 35 in Exp.2, suggesting the development of the positive biofilm. Percentage of piglets with regular consistency of faeces was continuously higher in LP rooms in Exp.1 (from d 8 to 21) and Exp.2 (from d 5 to 28). Furthermore, mean scores were significantly improved at d 8 in Exp.1 (3.13 vs 4.50; P<0.01) and in Exp.2 at d 9 (2.19 vs 3.19; P=0.01) and 28 (2.03 vs 2.50; P<0.01). Disease outbreaks occurred two days later in Exp.1 (d 9 vs 7) and five days later in Exp.2 (d 12 vs 7) in LP rooms. However, total numbers of deaths from diarrhoea were similar in both treatments in Exp.1 and 2. In Exp.1, LP piglets had numerically better overall ADFI (794 vs 781 g/d; P>0.10) and ADG (510 vs 499 g/d; P>0.10), and had slightly higher weight at d 42 (29.8 vs 29.4 kg; P>0.10). In Exp.2, ADFI (259 vs 219 g/d; P<0.001) and ADG (211 vs 154 g/d; P<0.001) were significantly increased in the LP treatment in phase 1 (d 0 to 15). Weight was significantly higher for LP piglets at d 15 (11.9 vs 11.0 kg; P<0.001), although it was similar at d 41 (P>0.10). In conclusion, the spraying of a beneficial flora on surfaces may result in a protective positive biofilm that would help the piglets to deal better with the weaning challenges.

PDF icon Eric Royer (ancien IFIP, aujourd'hui Idele) et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 octobre 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 566
2019

Control of biotrickling filter efficiency on NH3 emitted by piggeries

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E. Dumont (IMT Atlantique) et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 319, poster

Ammonia emitted by piggeries can be removed using biotrickling filtration. As ammonia is a very soluble compound in water, removal efficiency (RE) around 70-80% can be expected. However, the accumulation of nitrogen salts in water leads to a decrease in RE. Consequently, there is need to improve the management of equipment by controlling the amount of water which has to be discharged and replaced by fresh water in order to limit the accumulation of nitrogen salts. Such an improvement is based on the knowledge of the nitrogen mass balance between the gas phase and the liquid phase. The objective of this study was to establish the nitrogen mass balance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter treating ammonia emitted by a pig house. The experiment was carried out for 14 weeks on a French pig farm.
The biotrickling filter installed to treat the polluted air generated by 54 fattening pigs was filled with a structured plastic packing WAT NET 150 NC 20/48 (0.9×0.9×0.45 m). The airflow rate was of 1,350 m3/h corresponding to an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 1 s. In the gas phase, temperature, relative humidity, ammonia and nitrous oxide concentration were hourly measured. In the liquid phase, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration of nitrogen salts (NH4+, NO2-, NO3-) were weekly measured. Results showed that nitrogen mass balances carried out on both phases are in agreement (5% difference). A steady transfer rate of ammonia from the gas phase to the liquid phase was obtained (3.22 gN/h corresponding to 10.0 gN/pig/week). From the measured concentrations of nitrogen salts in the liquid phase, it was calculated that the nitrogen mass transfer was 9.5 gN/ pig/week. Moreover, it was also evidenced that the amount of nitrogen salts dissolved in water could be correlated to the water conductivity. As a result, the measurement of this parameter could be a useful tool to determine the amount of ammonia removed from the gas phase.

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2019

Modelling growth performance of pigs and within-room thermal balance in different local conditions

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Nathalie Quiniou et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 414, poster

A model has been used to assess both direct and indirect consumption of energy by growing pigs fed ad libitum, housed in fattening rooms with various insulation characteristics, and under different outdoor temperatures. This model combines a growth model and a bioclimatic model. It simulates thermal exchanges at the room level, based on interactions between the insulation of the room, available equipment (fans, heaters…), the parameters of the climate control box, the characteristics of pigs, and the feeding strategy. Heat sources are the animals (sensible heat) and heaters when available. Heat losses are due to insulation characteristics of the room and air renewal. The model has been evaluated from data collected simultaneously on pigs, diets, indoor and outdoor temperature (T) during a trial, and the error of prediction of indoor T was below 0.5 °C on an hourly basis. Thereafter, simulation will be performed, based on the same population of pigs and feeding strategy under different outdoor T, different heater powers in the room combined with different insulation level of wall material. For this purpose, four time series of outdoor T have been collected over 12 months (one in France and three from South to North in Sweden), as well as building characteristics in both countries (heater power: from 0 to 26 Watt/fattening place; 1 or 3 insulated layers).

For each combination of climate and building, indoor T and pig performance will be simulated as well as total energy consumption and its partition between direct and indirect components. This research was part of the Pigsys ERA-Net project, co-funded under European Union’s Horizon 2020 RI program (from SuSan, www.era-susan.eu,Grant Agreement n°696231) by the French ANR (grant n°ANR-16-SUSN-0003-02).

PDF icon Nathalie Quiniou et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 414, poster
2019

Tailored phase-feeding program for liquid-fed growing pig towards a reduced use of protein rich diet

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F. Maupertuis (Chambre d’Agriculture des Pays de la Loire, Ferme expérimentale) et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 481, poster

The growth profile and amino acid requirements of crossbred pigs were assessed with the InraPorc® software and used to investigate the possibility of implementing different phase-feeding strategies using a liquid feeding system.
Two batches (16 pens × 14 pigs per pen) were studied over the 44 to 120 kg body weight (BW) range. Two diets with 1.0 g (A) or 0.5 g (B) of digestible lysine per MJ of net energy (LYS/NE) were blended in proportions that depended on the strategy and the BW range. If using the 2-phase (2P) strategy, LYS/NE was 0.9 up to 65 kg BW and 0.8 afterwards. If using the 5-phase strategy (5P), LYS/NE was 0.90 (BW<50 kg), 0.85 (50-65 kg), 0.80 (65-85 kg), 0.70 (85-105 kg), and 0.60 (BW>105 kg). The daily supply of feed increased weekly by around 0.2 kg/pig, up to a plateau (gilts: 2.8 kg/d, barrows: 2.6 kg/d). The change from one phase to another was undertaken by the average BW per pen (measured every 3 weeks) and the minimum amount of feed the liquid-feeding system could deliver. Due to delivery problems, data of two pens were removed from the trial. No significant difference were observed between 2P and 5P pigs on daily feed intake (respectively: 2.38 and 2.42 kg/d, P=0.47), average daily gain (822 and 814 g/d, P=0.64), and feed conversion ratio (2.93 and 3.00, P=0.26). Diet A represented on average 65.4 and 48.1% of the total feed intake for 2P and 5P pigs (P<0.01), respectively. Based on the difference between N intake calculated from the crude protein (CP) content of diets A (15.6%) and B (10.7%) and N retention assessed from carcass leanness (P=0.37), N output was reduced by 6% with the 5P strategy (P=0.04). The decrease would have reached 19% with a two-phase strategy based on typical growing-finishing diets (16 and 15% CP) instead of the low-protein blends (14.6 and 13.6% CP) used in this study. Based on global environmental impacts of feedstuffs incorporated into diets A and B, the 5P strategy may contribute to a reduced consumption of phosphorus and climatic change. This research was part of the DY+ project, co-funded under the European Union’s Feader program.

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2019

Steroidome and metabolome analysis in gilt saliva to identify biomarkers of boar effect receptivity

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G. Goudet (INRA) et al., 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation Animal Science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 489, poster

Our objective was to develop alternatives to hormonal treatments to synchronize oestrus of gilts. Before puberty gilts exhibit a pre-puberty period during which boar exposure could induce and synchronize first ovulation. To develop practical non-invasive tools to identify this period an  improve detection of the gilts to stimulate, we searched for salivary biomarkers of the pre-puberty period. Saliva samples were collected from 30 Large-White × Landrace crossbred gilts from 140 to 175 days of age. Gilts were exposed to a boar twice a day and subjected to oestrus detection from 150 to 175 days of age. Among the 30 gilts, 10 were detected in oestrus 4 to 7 days after introduction of the boar and were considered receptive to the boar effect, 14 were detected in oestrus more than 8 days after boar introduction, 6 did not show oestrus and were considered non-receptive. Saliva samples from 6 receptive and 6 non-receptive gilts were analysed for steroidome using GC-MS/MS and for metabolome using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Four saliva samples per gilt were analysed: 26 days and 11 days before boar introduction (BI-26 and BI-11), the day of boar introduction (BI), 3 days later for receptive gilts (BI+3) or 7 days later for nonreceptive gilts (BI+7). Data were analysed using repeated measures one-way ANOVA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Thirty steroids and 35 metabolites were detected in gilt saliva. The concentrations of 6 steroids were higher (P<0.05) in receptive gilts than in non-receptive gilts at BI-26, BI-11 and BI. The concentration of 2 metabolites were lower (P<0.05) in receptive gilts than in non-receptive gilts at BI-11. These candidates could be potential salivary biomarkers to detect receptive gilts. However, their low and variable concentrations in saliva require expensive analysis and limit their use in pig farms.

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2019

Digestive efficiency is a heritable trait to further improve feed efficiency in pigs

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Vanille Déru (INRA/ France Génétique Porc) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415

The use of diets with dietary fibres from alternative feedstuffs less digestible for pigs is a solution considered to limit the impact of increased feed costs on pig production. This study aimed at determining the impact of an alternative diet with fibres on individual digestive efficiency coefficients, and to estimate their heritabilities and genetic correlations with other production traits. A total of 480 Large White pigs were fed a high fibre diet (FD) and 547 of their sibs were fed a conventional diet (CO). For each animal, digestibility coefficients (DC) of energy, organic matter, and nitrogen were predicted from faeces samples analysed with near infrared spectrophotometry.

Individual daily feed intake (DFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded as well as lean mean percentage (LMP), carcass yield (CY) and meat quality traits. The FD pigs had significantly lower DC than CO pigs (-5 to 6 points). The DC were moderately to highly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 0.41±0.14 to 0.50±0.15 in CO, and from 0.62±0.17 to 0.70±0.17 in FD. Genetic correlations between DC and ADG (from -0.65 to -0.52), FCR (from -0.75 to -0.33), and DFI (from -0.83 to -0.57) were high and negative in both diets. The DC were slightly unfavourably correlated with CY (from -0.24 to -0.11) and favourably correlated with LMP (from 0.03 to 0.29). Genetic correlations were generally unfavourable with meat quality traits (from -0.75 to 0.09). Genetic correlations of DC between diets were close to 1, so no interaction between feed and genetics could be evidenced for these traits. To conclude, DC measured in farm conditions are interesting criteria for selection to account for animal digestive capacity, due to moderate to high heritabilities and high genetic correlations with FCR.

However, according to these first results, it would have to be selected together with carcass yield and meat quality to avoid adverse genetic trends on the latter traits.

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2019

Incidence of heating the liquid feed on performance of fattening pigs

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Eric Royer et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415

Pig farms producing their own renewable energy could improve animal health or performance by the controlled heating of liquid feed. This study evaluated the effects of different liquid feed temperature on performance of growing-finishing pigs. For the fattening period (27.5 to 112 kg), a total of 144 pigs received, according to plan, a growing then a finishing diet mixed with water in a ratio of 2.8:1 l/kg and distributed at 10, 20 or 30 °C. Pigs of each treatment were allocated to 8 pens of 6 animals each, spread throughout the liquid feeding facility and received 13 times per week a liquid feed distributed by an automated supply system. Environmental temperature was maintained at 24 °C during the whole period. After distribution, pigs fed the 30 °C meal ate faster than pigs delivered 20 or 10 °C meals. It was visually observed that the latter ones agitated the mixture before eating. From d 0 to 52, pigs receiving 30 °C meal had better ADG and FCR than pigs given the 20 °C meal, pigs of the 10 °C meal being intermediate (ADG: 773, 740 and 764 g/d, respectively; P=0.02; FCR: 2.58, 2.69 and 2.61 kg/kg, respectively; P=0.03). Performance was similar among treatments from d 52 to 100 (P>0.10). Overall from d 0 to 100, FCR of pigs distributed the 30 °C feed was 2.2% lower than pigs given the 20 °C or the 10 °C meals (2.69 vs 2.77 and 2.74 kg/kg, respectively; P=0.04). Live weight at d 100 was higher for pigs given 30 °C meal than for pigs fed at 20 °C, pigs with a 10 °C meal being intermediate (110.4, 108.7 and 109.6 kg, respectively; P=0.04). 30 °C pigs tended to have a higher back fat depth than 20 and 10 °C pigs (13.7 vs 12.8 and 13.0 mm, respectively; P=0.07). These results are in agreement with the amount of heat exchange energy required to raise a liquid feed to body temperature. An additional profit of 1.1 € per pig for heated meal vs temp/cold meal was calculated on the basis of the study technical results. Under the economic conditions of 2016, a 2.2% decrease of the FCR could amortize an investment in a renewable energy up to € 5,000 per year in the case of a fattening unit with capacity for 1,500 pigs.

PDF icon Eric Royer et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415
2019

Additive and dominance genomic parameters for backfat thickness in purebred and crossbred pigs

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Mohammadpanah M (Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 291, poster

In pig crossbreeding programs, genetic evaluation has been based predominantly on purebred data accounting only for additive genetic effects, whereas improving crossbred performance is the ultimate goal. Theoretically, a combined crossbred and purebred selection method is advised if genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred populations differ from unity. If dominance effects are large enough, assortative mating strategies can enhance the total genetic values of the offspring. Hence, estimates of genetic parameters for purebreds and crossbreds are needed to assess the best selection crossbreeding scheme strategies. In this study, additive and dominance genetic variance components and additive and dominance genotypic correlations between a Piétrain and a Piétrain × Large White populations were estimated for backfat thickness (BFT). A total of 607 purebreds and 620 crossbred BFT records were analysed with a genotypic bivariate model that included hot carcass weight and inbreeding coefficient as covariates, an additive and a dominance genotypic effects, and a pen nested within batch random effect. Genetic parameters were estimated with EM-REML plus an additional iteration of AIREML to obtain the asymptotic standard deviations of the estimates. The additive genotypic correlation between purebreds and crossbreds was high, 0.82, indicating that the genetic progress attained in the purebreds can mostly be transferred to the crossbreds. Dominance genetic variance represented about 10% of the BFT phenotypic variance in both populations, suggesting that assortative matings could slightly enhance both purebred and crossbred performances. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for the dominance effects could differ between populations since dominance genotypic correlation was 0.49.

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2019

Upgraded EU rapeseed meal improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

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Melo ADB (IRTA, Espagne) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 421, poster

Rapeseed meal (RSM), a by-product of oil industry, contains large amounts of protein but also contains a high fibre content that limit its use to non-ruminant animals. Tail-end dehulled RSM presents high protein content and reduced fibre fraction, resulting more attractive for animal feeding. Also, pelletizing process could contribute to improve the nutritive value of dehulled RSM. The aim of the present study is evaluating the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pig´s diet based on dehulled RSM, combined with die size and steam from pelletizing process. A 2×2×2 factorial design was used with conventional (35% CP) or upgraded RSM (40% CP), 4×40 or 4×60 mm of die size, processed with or without steam. Conventional or upgraded RSM were included in similar proportion (22.5%) as the only protein source and no adjustment of synthetic amino acids (AA) was done.

Diets were provided ad libitum overall the trial, which lasts 49 days. One-hundred forty-four pigs weighing 27.55 kg were allocated at 72 pens, 2 pigs for pen (male and female), totalling 9 blocks of live weight per treatment. At the last week of experiment, faecal samples were collected for 3 days and lyophilized before lab analyses. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility were used as responsive criteria. Pig´s weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved by dehulled RSM. Feed efficiency is improved in pigs fed dehulled RSM, 4×60 mm die size with steam on pelleting process. The digestibility of energy, crude protein, lysine, methionine, threonine and valine is improved in diet based on dehulled RSM and no affected by die size. A greater nutrient content and availability such as found in the diet based on dehulled RSM is crucial to improve animal performance and it was enhanced after pelleting process.

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2019

Application of a precision feeding program in growing pigs: effect on performance and nutrient use

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Ludovic Brossard (INRA) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 469

Improvement of feed efficiency in growing pigs is a key issue for the economic and environmental sustainability of livestock production. This can be achieved with novel techniques such as precision feeding (PF). Within the Horizon 2020 EU Feed-a-Gene program (grant agreement n°633531), a decision support system (DSS) was developed to implement precision feeding in commercial pig farms. This study aimed to test the functioning of the DSS in practical conditions and the consequences on performance and nutrient use of growing pigs fed ad libitum. Sixty-four pigs were reared from 77 to 161 days of age (34 to 109 kg body weight, BW) in a single pen equipped with an automatic weighing-sorting system and eight automatic feeders allowing to register feed intake and deliver a tailored blend of two diets (A and B with respectively 1.0 and 0.4 g SID Lysine (Lys)/MJ NE, and 9.7 MJ NE/kg) to individual pigs.

Pigs of the control group received a blend providing 0.9 g SID Lysine (Lys)/MJ NE until the average group BW was 65 kg (growing phase) and 0.7 g SID Lys/MJ NE thereafter (finishing phase). For the PF group, the assessment of the SID Lys requirement was performed individually and on a daily basis, based on up to 20 previous records of BW and feed intake. Feed composition was changed accordingly by blending diets A and B in appropriate proportions. Daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio did not differ between treatments for the overall period or per period. During the growing period, the SID Lys intake and the nitrogen intake and excretion were respectively  10.8, 8.8, and 14.4% lower in the PF group compared to the control group (P<0.05). During the finishing period, these values were only numerically lower (difference <2%; P>0.68). This could result from a slightly higher feed intake (+100 g/d, P=0.24) in PF group combined with a SID Lys supply already low in control group. A second experiment will be performed in the same conditions to confirm the potential of the PF using the developed DSS.

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2019

Use of mate allocation in pig crossbreeding schemes: a simulation study

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González-Diéguez D et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 287

One of the main goals in a crossbreeding scheme is to improve the performance of crossbred population by exploiting heterosis and breed complementarity. Dominance is one of the likely genetic bases of heterosis and, nowadays, estimating dominance effects in genetic evaluations has become feasible in a genomic selection context. Mate allocation strategies that account for inbreeding and/or dominance can be of interest for maximizing the crossbred performance. The objective of this study was to simulate scenarios including or not mate allocation strategies in two-breed pig crossbreeding schemes. The different crossbreeding scenarios have been compared in terms of genetic gain (within-breed) and total genetic value in crossbred populations. The benchmark scenario is a crossbreeding scheme where within-line selection is performed on purebred genomic estimated breeding values and crossbreds come from random matings of the best purebreds. The other subsequent scenarios are conceived to evaluate the potential benefits of accounting for inbreeding, dominance and crossbred performances in the genetic evaluation model. Genomic mate allocation is a promising strategy to improve the crossbred performance.

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2019

Impact of cleaning and disinfection procedures on microbial ecology and Salmonella antimicrobial resistance in a pig slaughterhouse

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Arnaud Bridier (Anses) et al., Scientific Reports, 2019, volume 9, n° 1, 10 septembre, 13 pages

To guarantee food safety, a better deciphering of ecology and adaptation strategies of bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella in food environments is crucial. The role of food processing conditions such as cleaning and disinfection procedures on antimicrobial resistance emergence should especially be investigated. In this work, the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and the microbial ecology of associated surfaces communities were investigated in a pig slaughterhouse before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures. Salmonella were detected in 67% of samples and isolates characterization revealed the presence of 15 PFGE-patterns belonging to five serotypes: S.4,5,12:i:-, Rissen, Typhimurium, Infantis and Derby. Resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and/or chloramphenicol was detected depending on serotypes. 16S rRNA-based bacterial diversity analyses showed that Salmonella surface associated communities were highly dominated by the Moraxellaceae family with a clear site-specific composition suggesting a persistent colonization of the pig slaughterhouse. Cleaning and disinfection procedures did not lead to a modification of Salmonella susceptibility to antimicrobials in this short-term study but they tended to significantly reduce bacterial diversity and favored some genera such as Rothia and Psychrobacter. Such data participate to the construction of a comprehensive view of Salmonella ecology and antimicrobial resistance emergence in food environments in relation with cleaning and disinfection procedures.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49464-8.pdf

2019

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