La base documentaire de l'IFIP

La base documentaire de l'IFIP : des centaines de documents à télécharger ou bien à commander.

Résultats 321 à 340 de 4646 résultats
Rechercher une documentation
Publication Annéetrier par ordre croissant

A pan-European computed tomography procedure for measuring the new EU lean meat content of pigs

Consulter le resumé

Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster

A new EU regulation on carcass classification applies from July 2018. The new reference to calibrate the pig classification methods is a lean meat percentage based on total dissection (LMPtd). Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. If the national pig population to be sampled has the same characteristics as the population for which a CT procedure has been previously corrected, no additional dissection is required. In most of the national applications for authorisation of classification methods the population characteristics are managed via a stratification on a fat depth, mimicking the LMP variation.
The aim of this paper is to propose a pan-European CT procedure to calibrate the pig classification methods without any additional manual dissection. A sample of 29 half-carcasses was CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness and then fully dissected according to the EU regulation. The CT muscle volume was calculated by thresholding in the Hounsfield range 0-120. It was converted into muscle weight by applying a density of 1.04. The weight was divided by the carcass weight to obtain the lean meat percentage from CT (LMPct), in the same way as done for the LMPtd. LMPtd was regressed on LMPct. Only the slope was significant and was estimated at 0.965 (s.e.=0.002). The RMSE was 0.81. The plot of residuals against fitted values showed no pattern and no heterogeneity of variances. The main source of measurement error is the thresholding of the rind. As the thickness of the rind is very thin (2-3 mm), most of the voxels including rind are mixed voxels, either with air or with fat. Their Hounsfield values are therefore less than 0 and these voxels are classified in non-muscle. Only a few rind voxels have a Hounsfield value in the range [0-120 HU] and are thus misclassified in muscle. This is taken into account by the slope value which is slightly less than 1. The LMPtd range in the sample (53-68) covers the S+E classes (>= 55) which represent more than 90% of the EU pigs. It covers too more than 80% of all the national populations, excepted Italy. This robust CT procedure can therefore be applied in 27 Member States, by using a pan-European multiplicative factor of 0.965, without any additional national dissection.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster
2018

Genomic mating allocation model with dominance to maximize overall genetic merit in Landrace pigs

Consulter le resumé

D. Gonzalez-Dieguez et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Mating allocation strategies that account for dominance can be of interest for maximizing the overall genetic merit of future offspring. In a genomic context, accounting for dominance effects in genetic evaluations is easier than in a classical pedigree-based context. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in terms of genetic gain, the efficiency of a genomic mating allocation model accounting for dominance in a Landrace pig population. Genetic variance components were estimated for three traits (age at 100 kg, backfat depth and average piglets weight per litter) using an additive and dominance GBLUP model with inbreeding. The estimated additive and dominance genetic variances were used to obtain additive and dominant SNP effects using a BLUP-SNP model. Then, additive breeding values (BV) and total genetic values (TGV, those including dominance) were predicted for the offspring of all possible matings between 40 boars and around 1,500 sows (the number of available sows depended on the trait). Following a traditional breeding scheme, the best matings resulting from 40 boars and 600 sows, were selected based either on BV or TGV using linear programming. The expected genetic gain was calculated as the difference between the mean BV (or the mean TGV) of selected matings and the mean BV (or the mean TGV) of all possible matings. Results show that, for the analysed traits, mating allocation is a feasible and a potential strategy to improve the productive performance of the offspring (i.e. to improve their TGV) without compromising the additive genetic gain in this Landrace pig population.

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2018

Evaluation of micropollutants and chemical residues in organic and conventional pig meat

Consulter le resumé

G Dervilly-Pinel (ONIRIS) et al., 69h Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Even if there is no clear evidence that organic food products are healthier than conventional ones, the presumed absence of chemical contaminants is reported as main driver for organic consumers.. To provide occurrence data in a context of chronic exposure, samples of liver and meat (psoas major muscle) were collected in 2014 in six French slaughterhouses representing 70 pig farms, including 30 organic, 12 Label Rouge and 28 conventional. Each sample corresponded to a pool of tissues of three carcasses. Environmental contaminants (17 polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/ dibenzofurans (Dioxins), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, 6 mycotoxins, 6 trace metal elements) and residues from production inputs (75 antimicrobials and 121 pesticides) were investigated using the most sensitive methods. Contamination levels were measured below regulatory limits in all the samples. However, some differences were observed between types of farming. Dioxins, PCBs and HBCD concentrations were thus observed as significantly higher in organic meat samples. Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic meat without differences between organic and Label Rouge. Liver samples from conventional and Label Rouge farms exhibited higher contents in Zn and Cd than the organic ones. Ochratoxin A was the only mycotoxin quantified in 25 samples (36%) and detected in another 22 samples (31%) of the livers analysed, without significant differences between farming systems. A correlation could be observed between mycotoxins concentrations in meat and liver. All meat samples exhibited pesticides levels below the detection limits, whereas only 3 conventional or organic samples (overall: 3.5%) displayed residual concentrations of authorized veterinary antimicrobials, but with concentrations far below the regulatory limits.

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2018

Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

Consulter le resumé

Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster

From July 2018 the EU reference for pig grading is the lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection of a half-carcass. Dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et Monziols (2018) developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes.

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster
2018

Early prediction of Semimembranosus ultimate pH with Raman spectroscopy of pig carcasses

Consulter le resumé

Antoine Vautier et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie

The ultimate pH (pH24) is a crucial meat quality parameter in the pork meat industry, but its measurement time is still an issue for slaughterhouses due to difficulties to keep up the required 18h post mortem (pm) time minimum. Raman spectroscopy showed the potential to predict pH24 of Semimembranosus when performed during chilling at 60 to 120 minutes pm [1] and on the slaughter line at 30 to 60 minutes pm [2]. The objective of the study is to validate the accuracy of the 671 nm emission Raman device developed by Schmidt et al. [3] to predict pork meat quality on a French pork population at the end of the slaughter line (30 min pm). The ability to predict the “jambon cuit supérieur” cooking yield and slicing defects has also been tested.

PDF icon Antoine Vautier et al., 64rd ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie
2018

Antioxidant supplementation is ineffective to reduce the frequency of PSE-like zones in pork hams

Consulter le resumé

Antoine Vautier et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12-17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie

The frequency of pork hams with PSE-like zones is a major issue for the processed meat sector in France, despite recent improvements in the slaughter techniques and systematic sorting on the ultimate pH value of hams. Halothane genotype, still widespread in its heterozygous form, may play a significant role in this issue [1]. On the other hand, a recent work described at a molecular level a possible link between oxidative stress and the specific development of PSE-like zone [2]. From this hypothesis, an experimental design was carried out at the IFIP Experimental Station to evaluate the effect of antioxidant supplementation in pig diet on the appearance of PSE-like zone and more generally on the overall ham quality before and after cooking process. 

PDF icon Antoine Vautier et al., 64th ICOMST, 12-17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie
2018

Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

Consulter le resumé

Gérard Dumas et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie

In the framework of pig carcass classification a new EU regulation applying from July 2018 makes compulsory the use of a new reference. It is a lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection (LMPtd) of a halfcarcass. Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et al. [1] developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes. 

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64th ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie
2018

Early prediction of Semimembranosus ultimate pH with Raman spectroscopy of pig carcasses

Consulter le resumé

Antoine Vautier et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12-17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster

The ultimate pH (pH24) is a crucial meat quality parameter in the pork meat industry, but its measurement time is still an issue for slaughterhouses due to diffi culties to keep up the required 18h post mortem (pm) time minimum. Raman spectroscopy showed the potential to predict pH24 of Semimembranosus when performed during chilling at 60 to 120 minutes pm [1] and on the slaughter line at 30 to 60 minutes pm [2]. The objective of the study is to validate the accuracy of the 671 nm emission Raman device developed by Schmidt et al. [3] to predict pork meat quality on a French pork population at the end of the slaughter line (30 min pm). The ability to predict the “jambon cuit supérieur” cooking yield and slicing defects has also been tested.

PDF icon Antoine Vautier et al., 64th ICOMST, 12-17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster
2018

Treasure : Diversité des races locales de porcs et des systèmes de production pour des produits traditionnels de qualité élevée et des filières porcines durables

Consulter le resumé

Bénédicte Lebret (INRA), Marie José Mercat et Herveline Lenoir (IFIP),Salon International de l'Agriculture (SIA) 2018, 24 février-4 mars 2018, Paris, poster 

 

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2018

ECOALIM : améliorer les bilans environnementaux des élevages en optimisant leurs ressources alimentaires

Consulter le resumé

Visuels d'intervention de Sandrine Espagnol, Journée "CASDAR" du 17 janvier 2018

PDF icon Visuels d'intervention de Sandrine Espagnol, Journée "CASDAR" du 17 janvier 2018
2018

Ochratoxin A determination in swine muscle and liver from French conventional or organic farming production systems

Consulter le resumé

Vincent Hort (Anses) et al., Journal of Chromatography B, 2018, volume 1092, 15 août, p; 131-137

Consumers generally considered organic products to be healthier and safer but data regarding the contamination of organic products are scarce. This study evaluated the impact of the farming system on the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the tissues of French pigs (muscle and liver) reared following three different types of production (organic, Label Rouge and conventional). Because OTA is present at trace levels in animal products, a sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope dilution assay was developed and validated. OTA was detected or quantified (LOQ of 0.10 μg kg-1) in 67% (n = 47) of the 70 pig liver samples analysed, with concentrations ranging from <0.10 to 3.65 μg kg-1. The maximum concentration was found in a sample from organic production but there were no significant differences in the content of OTA between farming systems. OTA was above the LOQ in four out of 25 samples of the pork muscles. A good agreement was found between OTA levels in muscle and liver (liver concentration = 2.9 × OTA muscle concentration, r = 0.981).

2018

Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

Consulter le resumé

Benjamin Félix (Anses) et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018, n° 9, 6 avril, 11 pages

Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF) to finished food products (FFP), is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE), and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a larger diversity of food products than CC9. Both CCs being associated with the food production suggests, that certain processing steps, such as slaughtering or stabilization treatments, favor their settlement and the recontamination of the food produced. 

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00684/pdf

2018

Selection procedure of bioprotective cultures for their combined use with High Pressure Processing to control spore-forming bacteria in cooked ham.

Consulter le resumé

Mihanta Ramaroson et al., International journal of food microbiology, 2018, voluime 276, 2 juillet, p. 28-38

High Pressure Processing (HPP) and biopreservation can contribute to food safety by inactivation of bacterial contaminants. However these treatments are inefficient against bacterial endospores. Moreover, HPP can induce spore germination. The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains to be used as bioprotective cultures, to control vegetative cells of spore-forming bacteria in ham after application of HPP. A collection of 63 strains of various origins was screened for their antagonistic activity against spore-forming Bacillus and Clostridium species and their ability to resist to HPP. Some safety requirements should also be considered prior to their introduction into the food chain. Hence, the selection steps included the assessment of biogenic amine production and antibiotic resistance. No strain produced histamine above the threshold detection level of 50 ppm. From the assessment of antibiotic resistance against nine antibiotics, 14 susceptible strains were kept. Antagonistic action of the 14 strains was then assessed by the well diffusion method against pathogenic or spoilage spore-forming species as Bacillus cereusClostridium sp. like botulinum, Clostridium frigidicarnis, and Clostridium algidicarnis. One Lactobacillus curvatus strain and one Lactococcus lactis strain were ultimately selected for their widest inhibitory spectrum and their potential production of bacteriocin. A Lactobacillus plantarum strain was included as control. Their resistance to HPP and ability to regrow during chilled storage was then assessed in model ham liquid medium. Treatments of pressure intensities of 400, 500, and 600 MPa, and durations of 1, 3, 6, and 10 min were applied. After treatment, cultures were incubated at 8 °C during 30 days. Inactivation curves were then fitted by using a reparameterized Weibull model whereas growth curves were modelled with a logistic model. Although the two Lactobacillus strains were more resistant than L. lactis to HPP, the latter was the only strain able to regrow following HPP. The absence of biogenic amine production of this strain after growth on diced cube cooked ham was also shown. In conclusion this L. lactis strain could be selected as representing the best candidate for a promising preservative treatment combining biopreservation and HPP to control spore-forming bacteria in cooked ham.

 
2018

Classification of trace elements in tissues from organic and conventional French pig production

Consulter le resumé

Julien Parinet et al., Meat Science, 2018, volume 141, juillet, p. 28-35

This study assesses the impact of the farming system on the levels of copper, zinc, arseniccadmium, lead and mercury in pig tissues from three types of production (Organic (n = 28), Label Rouge (n = 12) and Conventional (n = 30)) randomly sampled in different slaughterhouses. All the concentrations were below regulatory limits. In muscles, Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic samples but no differences between organic and Label Rouge was observed. Livers from conventional and Label Rouge pig farms exhibited higher Zn and Cd contents than the organic ones, probably due to different practice in zinc or phytase supplementation of fattening diets. Principal component analysis indicated a correlation between Cu and As concentrations in liver and carcass weight, and between Zn and Cd liver levels and lean meat percentage. The linear discriminant analysis succeeded in predicting the farming process on the basis of the lean meat percentage and the liver Cd level.

2018

Qualité de la viande de porc

Consulter le resumé

Jacques Mourot (INRA) et al., In: Valérie Berthelot, dir., Valérie Berthelot, Alimentation des animaux et qualité de leurs produits (p. 172-190). Paris, Lavoisier Tec & Doc. 442 pages

Les produits animaux occupent une place importante dans notre régime alimentaire en apportant des nutriments indispensables à notre équilibre physiologique. Au-delà de cette qualité nutritionnelle, ils doivent aussi répondre à des objectifs de qualité sanitaire, sensorielle et de service ainsi qu’aux attentes des consommateurs. L’objectif de cet ouvrage est de faire la synthèse des connaissances scientifiques sur les relations entre ces différentes qualités et l’alimentation des animaux. La formulation des régimes alimentaires a évolué pour assurer une qualité optimale des produits issus des élevages tout en satisfaisant au mieux les besoins des animaux. Après un chapitre introductif sur la notion de qualité et son sens actuel, Alimentation des animaux et qualité de leurs produits aborde en 13 chapitres les thématiques suivantes :

• Alimentation animale, formulation des régimes et réglementation

• Déterminants alimentaires et non alimentaires en élevage de la qualité des produits

• Qualité des produits animaux et attente des consommateurs : intégration du volet alimentation et mise en œuvre par les acteurs des filières

2018

Développement de nouveaux outils haut débit pour l’évaluation précoce de la qualité de la viande de porc (QualiPorc)

Consulter le resumé

Sandrine Schwob et al., Innovations Agronomiques (FRA), 2018, volume 63, janvier, p. 407-419

Les perspectives en matière d'amélioration génétique de la qualité de viande (QV) reposent sur la mise au point de nouveaux outils haut débit, de prédiction précoce, peu coûteux et non invasifs. Pour cela, de nouvelles méthodes de mesure de QV, s’appuyant sur des technologies émergentes, ont été développées et testées en routine. L’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) permet de quantifier les teneurs en lipides intramusculaires (LIM) et caractériser le persillage dans le muscle Longissimus. La méthode d’analyse d’images a été automatisée pour améliorer les cadences de mesures (400 échantillons scannés par jour) et assurer la traçabilité des données. L’évolution du taux de LIM le long du muscle Longissimus analysée par IRM montre que l’échantillon prélevé au niveau de la 13ème côte est représentatif du taux de LIM moyen de la longe (R²=0.88). La spectroscopie visible et proche infrarouge (NIRS) permet, quant à elle, de prédire les rendements technologiques et les défauts de tranchage. Enfin, les données d’expression génique quantifiées dans le muscle Longissimus ont été exploitées afin d’identifier des biomarqueurs discriminant 3 classes de qualité technologique et sensorielle: à défaut, correct ou extra. Le meilleur modèle pour prédire l’appartenance d’un échantillon à une classe de qualité inclut 12 gènes.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6350/46562/file/Vol63-27-Schwob.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7LSo2f_oU

ENG

Development of high throughput methods to predict pork quality at industrial scale

This project aimed at providing new early and non-invasive predictors of pork quality usable in slaughter houses, to orientate use of carcasses and cuts and optimize their economic value. For this purpose, the project included development, testing and validation of various methods under industrial conditions. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology was used to estimate the Longissimus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and marbling. Image analysis method was automated to improve measurement rate (400 samples scanned per day) and ensure data traceability. MRI was also used to study the representativeness of IMF content determined at the 13th rib to assess average IMF of the whole Longissimus muscle. Results showed high repeatability and good predictive ability of Longissimus average IMF content with determination at the 13th rib level (R²=0.88). Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate cooking and slicing yields and structural defects. NIRS technology could predict slicing losses caused by paste-like and cohesion defects on processed loin slices. Finally, gene expressions quantified on Longissimus muscle were used to discriminate 3 pork quality classes: low, acceptable and extra technological and sensory quality levels. The best model to predict meat quality level of pork loins included expression levels of 12 genes.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6350/46562/file/Vol63-27-Schwob.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7LSo2f_oU

2018

Le projet ACCEPT : pourquoi, pour qui, quoi, qui ?

Consulter le resumé

Visuels d'intervention de Christine Roguet, Journée de réflexion collective autour des conclusions du projet ACCEPT « Controverse sur l’élevage : comprendre et agir », le 5 avril 2018, Paris, 5 pages

PDF icon Christine Roguet, Journée de réflexion collective ACCEPT « Controverse sur l’élevage : comprendre et agir » 5 avril 2018
2018

Odeurs indésirables de la viande 2018 de porcs mâles non castrés : problèmes et solutions potentielles

Consulter le resumé

Séverine Parois et al., Inra Productions animales, 2018, volume 31, n° 1, juin, p. 23-36

Les défauts d’odeur des viandes, liés à la présence d’androsténone et de scatol dans le tissu adipeux, sont le frein majeur au développement de l’élevage des porcs mâles entiers. L’accumulation de ces molécules est sous le contrôle de multiples facteurs. Quels sont-ils ? Dans quelle mesure peut-on les utiliser pour réduire les défauts d’odeur des carcasses ? À défaut d’abolir entièrement les carcasses odorantes, comment les utiliser dans la chaîne de production ?

La présence d’odeurs indésirables dans la viande de porcs mâles entiers est principalement liée à l’accumulation d’androsténone et de scatol. L’androsténone est synthétisée par les testicules et le scatol par les bactéries du colon à partir du tryptophane. Leur teneur dans le tissu adipeux résulte du bilan entre leur synthèse, leur élimination et leur réabsorption. Le principal levier d’action pour réduire la teneur en androsténone est la sélection génétique. Pour le scatol, les principaux leviers d’action concernent la conduite d’élevage : propreté des cases, gestion de l’environnement microclimatique et conduite alimentaire, notamment. La mixité des groupes et l’instabilité sociale ont peu d’impact sur les teneurs en composés odorants, mais sont importantes à contrôler pour réduire les risques de bagarres et de lésion.
Même en réduisant fortement la teneur en composés odorants, il ne sera pas possible d’obtenir des niveaux indétectables sur toutes les carcasses. Une stratégie d’utilisation des carcasses odorantes de porcs mâles entiers doit être définie. Elle implique de comprendre les facteurs de rejet des viandes odorantes par les consommateurs. La perception d’odeurs sexuelles dépend de facteurs liés à l’animal, au type de produit, au mode de préparation/consommation et au consommateur lui-même. De plus, les deux molécules odorantes semblent interagir. La prise en compte des différents cas de figure peut être envisagée par une approche de modélisation, avec en préalable la mise en oeuvre d’une détection des odeurs sur la chaine d’abattage. Or actuellement, seule la détection par le nez humain est opérationnelle au niveau des chaines d’abattage et des méthodes instrumentales restent à développer.

https://productions-animales.org/article/view/2206/4477

ENG

Boar taint in the meat of entire male pigs: the problems and the potential solutions

Boar taint in pork comes mainly from the presence of two molecules: androstenone and skatole. Androstenone is produced by the testes and skatole is synthetized from tryptophan by bacteria in the colon. Their content in fat tissues results from the balance between synthesis, elimination and reabsorption. The main way to decrease the androstenone concentration is genetic selection. Regarding skatole, the main ways involve husbandry, cleanliness of pens, management of microclimatic conditions and feeding strategy. Gender mixing and social instability have little influence on boar taint but it is important to control them to decrease the risk of fighting and lesions. Even if it is possible to drastically decrease the boar taint level, it will not be possible to reach undetectable levels in every single carcass. It is necessary to define an entire male pig carcass-use strategy. It involves understanding the factors leading to consumers’ rejection of tainted pork. The perception of sexual odors depends on factors related to the animal, the type of pork product, the way of cooking/consumption and the consumer oneself. Moreover, the two odorant molecules seem to interact. A modelling approach is necessary to consider the different specific cases, which requires methods to detect the odors on-line. Currently, only the detection by the human nose is operational in slaughterhouses and instrumental methods still have to be developed.

https://productions-animales.org/article/view/2206/4477

2018

Accompagner les éleveurs pour une meilleure prise en charge des douleurs animales : le cas de l’écornage des bovins et de la caudectomie des porcs (AccEC).

Consulter le resumé

Béatrice Mounaix et al., Innovations agronomiques (FRA), 2018, volume 63, janvier, p. 87-98

Le projet AccEC, porté par le RMT « Bien-être animal », reposait sur une approche multi-acteurs visant à créer les conditions d’une réflexion collective. Un comité d’échange national et des groupes de discussion régionaux ont ainsi permis l’expression des points de vue et des propositions des différents acteurs concernés. Deux modules expérimentaux ont débouché sur le développement d’outils d’accompagnement des éleveurs pour soulager la douleur durant l’écornage des jeunes veaux et la caudectomie des porcelets, et à minimiser les facteurs de risques associés à la caudophagie chez le porc. En complément de la validation de protocoles de prise en charge de la douleur et de la formalisation de conseils pratiques pour la réalisation des opérations ou la prévention des risques, un module de formation à l’écornage a été conçu puis testé auprès de 40 éleveurs. Sa pertinence et son impact sur les pratiques (observation et entretien avec les éleveurs avant et après formation) ont été évalués. L’originalité de cette formation est d’associer une approche technique et vétérinaire permettant de transmettre les éléments de savoir-faire pratique et de faciliter l’accompagnement vétérinaire pour la réalisation des anesthésies locales. La démarche pédagogique adoptée a été reconnue comme une des réussites du projet.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6329/46499/file/Vol63-6-Mounaix.pdf

ENG

To assist breeders in handling animals pain when dishorning calves and during piglets docking

The « AccEc » project, carried by RMT “Animal welfare”, was based on a multi-stakeholders’ approach to create good conditions for a collective reflection. A national committee and regional discussion groups allowed the different stakeholders to express their points of view and proposals. Two experimental work-packages resulted in the development of tools to guide breeders in relieving pain when dishorning calves and during piglets docking. In addition to the validation of protocols designed to handle pain and the formalisation of practical pieces of advice to perform the operation or prevent the risks, a dishorning training was created and tested. Its relevance and its impact on practices were assessed by observations and interviews with breeders before and after the training. This training program originality lies in the association of technical and veterinary approaches, allowing for transmission of practical skills and making veterinary support to local anaesthetic easier. The educational approach selected has been recognized as one of the successes of this project.

2018

Evaluation environnementale des systèmes porcins

Consulter le resumé

Sandrine Espagnol, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 90

L’évaluation environnementale des systèmes porcins est l’étape qui permet de faire le point et d’identifier les priorités d’action pour réduire les impacts environnementaux des élevages et assoir ainsi leur durabilité. La base de données Agribalyse gérée par l’Adème établit les impacts environnementaux des principaux produits agricoles au portail de la ferme et notamment du porc. Ces valeurs d’impacts sont utilisables par la filière aval notamment dans une logique d’affichage environnementale et d’écoconception. Cette dynamique lancée pose de nouvelles questions à la filière concernant :
● Les références des systèmes émergents. Il s’agit notamment de vérifier si les références disponibles prennentsuffisamment en compte la diversité
de ces systèmes (plus grande que dans les systèmes conventionnels) et si la méthode d’évaluation des impacts prend suffisamment en compte leurs spécificités (préservation de la qualité des sols et de la biodiversité notamment). Le projet ACV Bio porté par l’INRA et auquel est associé l’IFIP a pour objectif d’aborder cette question pour la production biologique et notamment en porc.
● La répartition des impacts entre la viande et ses coproduits animaux et leurs co-produits. En effet, si un seul produit animal est issu des élevages porcins au portail de la ferme, c’est une toute autre question en sortie d’abattoir où de nombreux coproduits sont générés avec de multiples destinations (alimentation humaine, industrie du cuir, aliments des animaux de compagnie). Le projet Allocations viande s’est intéressé aux différentes options possible d’allocation cherchant in fine à en conseiller une pour la filière viande sur la base d’arguments techniques et scientifiques.

PDF icon Sandrine Espagnol, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 90, fiche n° 50
2018

Pages