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Diversité des productions porcines en France

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Jean-Yves Dourmad et al., Innovations agronomiques (FRA), 2018, volume 68, octobre, p. 151-170

Alors que la production porcine française est souvent perçue comme uniforme, il existe une assez grande diversité en termes d'organisation et taille des élevages et d'insertion dans l'exploitation agricole. Les élevages spécialisés représentent 39% des exploitations et 61% du cheptel alors que pour 38% des exploitations l'élevage porcin est associé à la présence de bovins. Au niveau des produits la diversification est surtout assurée en aval par le tri des carcasses et des pièces de découpe, et la transformation. Le porc est en effet valorisé à 75% sous la forme d'une grande diversité de produits transformés qui contraste avec la faible diversité de l'offre en viande fraiche. Depuis quelques années on assiste au développement de différentes démarches valorisant l'origine ou le mode d'élevage. Les leviers de différenciation concernent souvent plusieurs dimensions comme la race des animaux, l'origine géographique des produits, leurs qualités organoleptique ou diététique, l'absence ou la présence de certains composés dans l'alimentation des animaux, le bien-être animal et la production biologique. Cette évolution est favorisée par le renforcement des liens entre les groupements de producteurs et l'aval, y compris jusqu’à la transformation et la distribution.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6490/47897/file/Vol68-7-Dourmad%20et%20al.pdf

Diversity of pig production in France

Although French pig production is generally perceived as uniform, a rather large diversity still exists in terms of organization and size of pig units and their integration with the rest of the farm. Specialized pig farms represent 39% of all pig farms and they raise about 61% of all pigs, whereas in 38% of farms the raising of pigs is associated with ruminants. Diversity of pork products is mainly obtained by the sorting of carcasses and cuts, and their processing. Indeed, in France, about 75% of pork is consumed after processing, with a very large diversity of products. This contrasts with the rather low diversity of pork fresh meat. Nevertheless, in the recent years, we may observe the development of strategies of diversification based on the origin or the way of production. The differentiation levers may combine different dimensions among: animal breed, geographic origin, organoleptic and dietetic quality, the absence or the presence of specific compounds in animal feed, animal welfare, and organic production.
This evolution towards increased diversity is promoted by the consolidation of the links between pig producer cooperatives and the downstream of the pork production chain, including processing and distribution sectors.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6490/47897/file/Vol68-7-Dourmad%20et%20al.pdf

2018

Towards the quantitative characterization of piglets’ robustness to weaning: A modelling approach

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Manuel Revilla et al., Biorxiv, 2018, 26 septembre, 30 pages

Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals capacity to endure the challenges associated to weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. We monitored 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and one week later for collecting haematological data. We constructed a dynamic model based on the Gompertz-Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biological parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterization of robustness.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2018/09/27/428920.full-text.pdf

2018

Guide de bonnes pratiques de biosécurité pour le transport

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Isabelle Corrégé, Porc Mag (FRA), 2018, n° 534, septembre, p. 63

La première version du guide de bonnes pratiques de biosécurité pour le transport des porcs est maintenant disponible.

2018

Fiche PPA (fièvre porcine africaine)

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Depuis 10 ans, la fièvre porcine africaine s’étend géographiquement et est devenue européenne. Une vigilance toute particulière doit donc être accordée à cette maladie qui pénaliserait la filière porcine. Les porcs peuvent être contaminés par un contact direct avec des porcs infectés ou par ingestion de déchets alimentaires contenant de la viande de porc non transformée contaminée, ou des produits qui en sont issus. Les locaux contaminés, les véhicules, le matériel ou les vêtements peuvent aussi transmettre le virus à des animaux sensibles...

PDF icon ppa-ansp-eleveur_de_porcs.pdf
2018

Développement de nouveaux outils haut débit pour l’évaluation précoce de la qualité de la viande de porc

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Antoine Vautier, à la 7ème journée de restitution des programmes de R&D financés par le Casdar "Innovation et partenariat" et "Recherche finalisée et innovation", le 17 janvier 2018, Paris

PDF icon visuels de Antoine Vautier, journée CASDAR du 17 janvier 2018, Paris
2018

Filière porcine ukrainienne : Illusions perdues

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Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2018, n° 489, synthèse du mois, septembre, p. 8, par Boris Duflot

Avec son potentiel de productions végétales, ses faibles coûts de main d’oeuvre et une tradition de consommation de porc, l’Ukraine pouvait devenir un acteur majeur du commerce international. Mais la propagation de la peste porcine africaine empêche quasiment toute exportation, tandis que le marché intérieur s’est réduit depuis la crise politique et économique de 2014.

PDF icon Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2018, n° 489, synthèse du mois, septembre, p. 8, par Boris Duflot
2018

Bien-être animal en élevage : un challenge croissant ; de nouveaux leviers d’action. Labels « bien-être animal », des obligations de moyens aux indicateurs de résultat : exemples anglais et allemand

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Christine Roguet, à Space 2018 (Les Matinales de l'Ifip), le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes

PDF icon Visuels de Christine Roguet, aux Matinales au Space IFIP, le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes
2018

Bien-être : placer l’éleveur au cœur du dispositif

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Valérie Courboulay, à Space 2018 (Les Matinales de l'Ifip), le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes

PDF icon Visuels de Valérie Courboulay, Matinales au Space IFIP, le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes
2018

Porsim, outil web d’aide à la décision technique, économique et financière pour l’éleveur de porc

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Alexia Aubry, à Space 2018 (Matinales de l'Ifip), le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes

PDF icon Visuels de Alexia Aubry, Matinales au Space IFIP, le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes
2018

Comment définir une « Bonne viande de porc » sur le plan organoleptique

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Gilles Nassy, à Space 2018 (Matinales de l'Ifip), le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes

PDF icon Visuels de Gilles Nassy, Matinales au Space IFIP, le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes
2018

La Pologne sur un fil, entre potentiels et menaces ?

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Visuels d'intervention présentés par Elisa Husson et Boris Duflot, à Space 2018 (Les Matinales de l'Ifip), le 11-14 septembre 2018, Rennes

PDF icon Visuels d'Elisa Husson et Boris Duflot, Matinales au Space IFIP, le 11-14 sept 2018, Rennes
2018

Dispositif de maîtrise des salmonelles dans la filière porcine française

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Le présent dossier décrit chaque pièce du dispositif français de maîtrise du danger Salmonella et la cohérence de son fonctionnement. Il présente les résultats de prévalence des salmonelles recueillis depuis 20 ans afin d’illustrer son efficacité et démontrer les garanties qu’il offre au consommateur et aux clients étrangers.
Ce dossier à la fois technique et communicant a vocation à aider les professionnels à démonter l’efficacité de l’ensemble de leurs actions auprès des parties prenantes et des clients export.

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2018

Ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in a pig slaughterhouse

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Arnaud Bridier et al., Food Micro, 3-6 septembre 2018, Berlin, Allemagne et I3S, 24-26 septembre 2018, Saint-Malo, France

Salmonella is a bacterial pathogen responsible for a large number of food associated infections. In order to guarantee food safety, a better understanding of Salmonella ecology and adaptation strategies on the food production chain constitutes a prerequisite. In a One Health perspective, data on Salmonella antibiotic resistance in food environments are also crucial to decipher transmission routes of resistant foodborne pathogens as well as resistance genetic determinants involved, and the role of process and selection pressures underwent in food industries (as cleaning and disinfection) in bacterial adaptation and antimicrobial resistance emergence.
Using a pig slaughterhouse as a model food environment, occurrence of Salmonella was investigated at six different areas along the slaughter chain and through 4 sampling campaign, each time before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures (a total of 48 surface samples). Characterization of isolated Salmonella strains using serotyping and pulsotyping enabled to identify and trace persistent strains in the slaughterhouse. Minimal inhibiting concentrations (MIC) were also determined for various relevant antibiotics and for biocides used in the slaughterhouse. In addition, associated indigenous bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. 
Results revealed the presence of Salmonella at all sampling area. Five serotypes were identified: S.4,5,12:i:- (50%), Rissen (16%), Typhimurium (16%), Infantis (10%) and Derby (8%). Strains were found at different dates and potentially at the same sampling area suggesting they persist in the slaughterhouse despite of the cleaning and disinfection procedures. Approximately 70% of isolated Salmonella strains exhibit resistance to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole, 80% to tetracycline and 10% to chloramphenicol. There was no evolution of CMI comparing strains before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures concerning both biocides and antibiotics. Bacterial diversity analyses showed that populations in slaughterhouse were highly dominated by &a1;-proteobacteria and especially by the Moraxellaceae family (genus Psychrobacter, Moraxella, Enhydrobacter and Acinetobacter) at the different sampling areas. Population compositions were overall stable in time at a given sampling area suggesting that the surface populations are resident populations within the slaughterhouse, rather than populations introduced each week by the new swine bands. Cleaning and disinfection procedures tend to reduce bacterial diversity by eliminating the minority species but did not greatly impact the composition of bacterial communities with regards to the dominant species.
Together, such data participate to the construction of a comprehensive view of Salmonella ecology in food environments integrating associated resident microbial flora and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance in relation to processing conditions.

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2018

Population genetic structure of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from the pig and pork meat production chain in France

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Benjamin Félix (Anses) et al., Food Micro, 3-6 septembre 2018, Berlin, Allemagne

Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming to finished food products, is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. 
Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: pig farming (PF), the food processing environment (FPE) and finished food products (FFP). The genetic structure was described based on MLST clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. 
The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59 and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a larger diversity of food products than CC9. Both CCs being associated with the food production suggests, that certain processing steps, such as slaughtering or stabilization treatments, favor their settlement and the recontamination of the food produced.

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2018

Global sensitivity analysis of a pig fattening unit model simulating technico-economic performance and environmental impacts

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Alice Cadéro et al., Agricultural Systems, volume 165, septembre, p. 221-229

Livestock farming system (LFS) models are used to produce key technical or economic outputs. Current models simulate multicriteria performance of LFS, i.e. technical, economic and environmental outputs. Therefore, conducting sensitivity analysis (SA) of these models is increasingly challenging. We developed a pig fattening unit model which is a stochastic, discrete-event mechanistic model with a one-day time step. An individual-based model is used to represent the pigs. Our objective was to perform a global SA of this model while accounting for effects of parameters on all outputs. Due to the model's long computational time, we first performed screening SA using the Morris method to identify and exclude non-influential parameters, and then performed variance-based SA of the influential parameters using metamodels. The most influential parameters were mainly pig characteristics and the disinfection period. This study provides a generic SA sequence adapted for models with a high computational cost and multiple outputs.

2018

Essais interlaboratoires d'aptitude : composition de produits à base de viandes - rapport IC_2018_1

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L’Ifip (Institut du porc) a organisé en mars - juin 2018 le circuit inter-laboratoires IC_2018_1 sur la composition chimique de produits à base de viandes. 57 laboratoires ont participé à ce circuit. La coordination du présent essai d’aptitude est assurée par Martine Carlier (martine.carlier@ifip.asso.fr, tel 01 43 68 41 55).

PDF icon Martine Carlier, rapport ifip, juin 2018, 29 pages
2018

An online phenotype database: first step towards breeding programs in local pig breeds

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Marie-José Mercat et al., 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, le 27-31 août 2018, visuels d'intervention

In order to further allow implementation of breeding programs in local pig breeds, with selection objectives defined for each local breed, we aimed at developing a standardised recording of carcass and meat quality traits. These data have to be connected with herdbooks to estimate genetic parameters of the traits (heritabilities and genetic correlations) which are necessary to define breeding objectives. Today the situation is very different from one local breed to another. No or very few phenotypes are recorded in some of them, while breeding programs already exist for a few breeds. To promote phenotyping, a dedicated database and a website were developed in the frame of the TREASURE project. First, the required variables have been collected for six local breeds: Basque (FR), Bísaro (PT), Crna slavonska (HR), Gascon (FR), Krškopoljski (SI) and Schwäbisch-Hällisches (DE). In total 74 variables have been identified dealing with animal herdbook information (10), rearing and growth (22), carcass (22) and meat quality (20) attributes. The database is compatible with the various identifiers used in the different countries: animal IDs, breed, farm… codifications. Major attention has been paid to the description of measurement methods of traits. Thus, each carcass and meat quality phenotype is associated to a method description representing 35 additional variables. The website can be easily translated into several languages. The website and database are currently on test until the end of the TREASURE project. All the breeds studied in TREASURE are free to use these tools. The database can be duplicated so that each partner can host its own data. Funded by European Union H2020 RIA program (grant agreement no. 634476).

PDF icon Marie-José Mercat et al., 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, le 27-31 août 2018
2018

Chemical and nutritional value of organic feedstuffs: A need to address in monogastric feeding

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A. Roinsard et al., 68th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

As it is mandatory since January 2019 to feed organic pigs and poultry with 100% organic feeds in the EU, a better knowledge of the nutritional value of organic raw materials is, more than ever, a key for farmers to develop efficient nutrition systems for organic livestock farming. Studies are being conducted in the French CASDAR programme SECALIBIO to compare organic raw materials to conventional ones, to establish the composition and nutritional value of organic feeds, and to evaluate their variability. A database of 6,577 samples of 94 organic raw materials, most of them commonly used in monogastric feeding (soybean meals, maize, faba bean, etc.), was constituted using data from the French Feed Database of the AFZ, from previous research programmes and from feed companies participating in SECALIBIO. In vivo digestibility trials on pigs and poultry were conducted to evaluate the specificities of organic raw materials and provide new data (for forage peas for example). The variability of organic raw materials was generally comparable to that of conventional ones. However, the fat content of organic sunflower (6.2 to 25.2% MS) and soybean (5.37 to 22.6% MS) meals varied a lot due to processing technologies, and it was suggested to delineate categories with consistent crude protein and fibre content. In connection with it, for poultry, the digestibility of protein could vary a lot for sunflower (76.5-83.0%) and soybean (74.4-87.32%) meals.
Organic soybean meals was reported to have a lower lysine/crude protein ratio than the conventional one (5.75 vs 6.14%): further investigations will determine the impact of this difference on feed formulation. The first practical result of this study will be the creation of specific tables of composition and nutritional value of organic feeds for pigs and poultry which represents a key for farmers to develop an efficient nutrition system in organic farming.

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2018

Precision feeding with a decision support tool dealing with daily and individual pigs’ body weight

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Nathalie Quiniou (IFIP) Michel Marcon (IFIP) et Ludovic Brossard (INRA), 69h Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018 

Nutritionists, feed companies and equipment manufacturers look for solutions that help farmers to improve sustainability of pig production. Based on experimental results obtained in silico or in vivo, a better adequacy between amino acid supplies and requirements increases feed efficiency and farmer’s income and reduces the environmental impact of growing pigs, highlighting the interest for precision feeding. Data are collected to characterize daily animal traits (e.g. body weight, BW) and their variation from one day to another (e.g. growth rate, &‘6;BW). They are used to determine the requirement for maintenance and growth on the next day, respectively. Therefore, adequacy between requirements and supplies depends on these predicted BW and &‘6;BW. The double exponential smoothing (Holt-Winters) method with a smoothing parameter &”5;=0.6 (HW0.6), presents a low sensitivity to the number of latest values used to forecast BW. It seems to allow for a secured prediction of BW soon after the beginning of the growing phase (at least after 4 days). A group of pigs was used in restricted feeding conditions to compare results obtained either with a 2-phase feeding strategy, considered as the control treatment, or a precision feeding strategy based on BW forecasting with the HW0.6 method. Pigs allocated to both treatments were group-housed in the same pen, equipped with the decision support system built in the Feed-a-Gene project to manage the data, to determine in real-time the corresponding nutritional requirements, and to adapt the feed characteristics provided to each pig through the blend of two diets (9.75 MJ net energy/kg, 0.5 or 1.0 g of digestible lysine per MJ). Available results from 24 pigs per treatment indicate that overall average growth performance were not influenced by the feeding strategy (P>0.58 for both average daily gain and feed conversion ratio) but digestible lysine intake was reduced by 6% (1,774 vs 1,879 g, P<0.01) and N output by 7% (P<0.01) with precision feeding. Results will be completed by a second group using the same treatments. This study is part of the Feed-a-Gene project and received funding from the European Union’s H2020 program under grant agreement no. 633531.

PDF icon Nathalie Quiniou et al., 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018
2018

Relationship between age and body weight at farrowing over 6 parities in Large White × Landrace sow

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Nathalie Quiniou, 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018 

At the beginning of the gestation, parity and back fat (BT) thickness are frequently used by farmers to choose among different feeding plans the most adapted one to feed each sow if individual feeding is possible. Otherwise, BT is used to allocate the sows to one of the available pens and to adapt the feed allowance at the group level. Usually a single target of BT at farrowing is retained at the herd scale, and each sow is expected to make up its BT for the difference between the target and its own initial BT. According to the factorial approach used to assess nutrient requirements, achieving an expected BT gain implies that enough energy is supplied above maintenance. Based on equation published by Dourmad et al., expected energy retention is obtained by the difference between the initial (calculated from measured BT and BW) and the final amount of energy (calculated from expected BT and BW).
When no information is collected on BW during the gestation, the expected final BW is also used to assess daily BW and corresponding maintenance requirement and to take into account impacts of housing conditions (temperature, activity level). Then, adequacy of the energy supply depends not only on initial and final BT, but also on initial BW and final BW. Individual BW have been collected over successive parities in the IFIP facilities (n=6,288 from Large White × Landrace sows born since 2000). Data of 90 sows born between 2012 and 2015, studied over at least 6 parities and group-housed from the 28th to the 108th day of gestation, were used to characterize the relationship between age and BW after farrowing based on BW at the first farrowing (BW_P1) and BW gain afterwards, with BW at the 6th parity considered as the mature BW: BWi(Age), kg = 145.6 + 0.171 × Age_P1i+ 111.4 × (1 – exp(- 1.453/1000 × (Age-Age_P1i)1.084)), RMSEP=16 kg; with Age_P1i: the individual age at the first farrowing used to adjust the mean BW_P1. Based on this equation, the individual expected BW gain (both growth and recovering parts) can be calculated and, combined with BT gain, used to assess the corresponding energy requirement for precision feeding during gestation. Its calibration for other lines or farms will require specific measurements due to interactions with management.

PDF icon Nathalie Quiniou, 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018
2018

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