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Influence of reduced levels or suppression of sodium nitrite on the outgrowth and toxinogenesis of psychrotrophic Clostridium botulinum Group II type B in cooked ham

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Sarah Lebrun (Université de Liège, Belgique) et al., International journal of microbiology, 2020, volume 334, 2 décembre, 7 pages

Outgrowth and toxinogenesis of Clostridium botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic) type B were studied in cooked ham prepared with different NaNO2 (ranging from 0 to 80 mg/kg) and sodium chloride (NaCl, ranging from 12 to 19 g/kg) incorporation rates. Cured ground pork batters were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains of C. botulinum Group II type B at 3.5 log10 CFU/g, portioned and samples of 50g were vacuum packed then cooked and cooled based on thermal processing employed by the meat processing industry. These cooked ham model samples were stored under reasonably foreseeable conditions of use and storage i.e. for 14 days at 4°C, followed by a cold chain break for 1h at 20°C then up to 33 days at 8°C. Storage times and temperatures were used to mimic those commonly encountered along the supply chain. Enumeration of C. botulinum and detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) were performed in triplicate at different storage times. Under these experimental conditions, incorporation rates of NaNO2 ≥ 30 mg/kg prevented the outgrowth and toxinogenesis of C. botulinum Group II type B in the cooked ham model, regardless of the NaCl concentrations tested. In contrast, total removal of nitrite allowed outgrowth and toxin production during storage of the processed meat product. Results showed that the maximum ingoing amount of nitrite (i.e. 150 mg/kg) that may be added according to the EU legislation (Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008) can be reduced in cooked ham while still ensuring control of C. botulinum Group II type B. According to the multiple factors that could affect C. botulinum behavior in processing meat products, outgrowth and toxin production of C. botulinum should be evaluated on a case by case basis, depending on the recipe, manufacturing process, food matrix and storage conditions.

2020

Spoilage of fresh turkey and pork sausages: Influence of potassium lactate and modified atmosphere packaging

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Ngoc-Du Martin Luong et al., Food Research International, 2020, volume 137, novembre, p. 1-14

Fresh poultry and pork meat products represent highly perishable products which are susceptible to spoil within a few days after production. Lactate addition and modified atmosphere packaging are common preservation strategies used to overcome spoilage. This study aimed to identify the effects of these strategies and their possible interactions on spoilage indicators simultaneously on fresh pork and turkey sausages. Ten batches of raw meat (turkey or pork) sausages were industrially produced with different lactate concentrations (0, 1 or 2% w/w in turkey and 0, 0.57 and 1.13% w/w in pork), packed under different gas mixtures (air, MAP1: 70% O2 – 30% CO2 and MAP2: 50% CO2 − 50% N2) and chill stored during 22 days. Spoilage responses including enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, measurement of pH and colour, evaluation of visual defects and off-odour, were monitored. Effects of lactate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) as well as random effect of the batch variability were studied using a mixed effect model. Despite initial batch variability, significant effects of lactate and gas packaging were observed but in a different way in turkey and pork. Our results suggest that for fresh turkey sausages, the gas mixture enriched in oxygen enhanced off-odour perception and sausage discolouration from red to dark grey / brown colour. Unlike turkey sausages, in pork sausages, lactate did not significantly influence the monitored spoilage responses, whereas MAP (70% O2-30% CO2) reduced the off-odour perception. The developed model could be useful to estimate the effect of preservation strategies on spoilage occurrence while considering industrial batch variability.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920305263/pdfft?md5=5227fed033c4a282d596c66be7b6f2ba&pid=1-s2.0-S0963996920305263-main.pdf

2020

BEEP: An advisory pig welfare assessment tool developed by farmers for farmers

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Valérie Courboulay et al., Livestock Science, 2020, volume 240, octobre

Farm animal welfare is now an obvious goal for all livestock stakeholders. However, the ways to improve it are neither easy nor evident for animal caretakers or their advisers. Most welfare assessment tools are not designed to be used by farmers but by scientists, vets, breeding advisers or certification bodies. Our project hypothesised that animal welfare could be improved more markedly if farmers could assess the welfare of their pigs themselves, and discuss it with their breeding advisers. Sixteen voluntary farmers, five voluntary breeding advisers, three scientific experts on pig welfare, a pig veterinarian and a specialist in co-design worked together to develop a pig welfare evaluation tool that could be used for self-assessment on pig farms. The tool was constructed in four steps: 1) identifying pig welfare indicators, 2) selecting the best indicators and developing a measurement protocol, 3) testing the tool on farms, 4) giving farmers feedback and validating the tool. All the steps were carried out through working groups. Discussions on welfare indicators led to a list of the most important indicators according to the farmers and advisers, focusing on Welfare Quality® Protocol items “good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour”. To be useful on farms, each indicator selected was reformulated into one or more measurements. The tool, known as “BEEP”, currently consists of a folder of documents to be brought onto farms. It focuses only on growing pigs and was designed to take no more than two hours to implement. The BEEP tool makes farmers aware of animal welfare issues and helps them to improve the welfare of their livestock. BEEP is currently being disseminated in France, where the farmers are trained to use it. It is positively welcomed by other farmers and their representatives as it was developed with and for farmers. The next step is to develop an electronic application.

2020

Consumers' expectations and liking of traditional and innovative pork products from European autochthonous pig breeds

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Mauro Vitale et al., Meat Science, 2020, volume 168, octobre, p. 108-179

The aim of the study was to ascertain the acceptability of Traditional (T) and Innovative (IT) pork products by European consumers considering also the influence of the sensory properties. The tests were performed in Barcelona, Bologna, Toulouse and Zagreb, with products from autochthonous pig breeds Porc Negre Mallorquí (patties), Cinta Senese (dry-fermented sausages), Gascon-Noir de Bigorre (dry-cured hams) and Turopolje (dry-cured hams), respectively. The methodological approach relied on the expectancy-disconfirmation model and the assimilation theory (blind, expected and informed tests). All consumers had a similar behaviour: higher expectations of T and IT differentiating them significantly from the remaining products, except in Barcelona test, because consumers in this city were not acquainted with the production system. Innovation in T products focusing on healthy and process innovation highlighted the need to provide information about the breed and the production system, but we can conclude that the sensory quality had a significant role on the preferences of consumers.

2020

Matières premières en alimentation animale : que consomme la filière porcine ?

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Manon Sailley, Porc Mag (FRA), 2020, n° 555, septembre, p. 44-45

L'Ifip a participé à une étude permettant de mieux connaître les flux des matières premières utilisées en alimentation animale en France, depuis leurs disponibilités sur le territoire jusqu'à leurs utilisations alternatives (nutritions animale ou humaine, énergie...). L'occasion  de décrypter ce que consomme la filière porcine.

2020

Romillé, un outil pour une R & D d'excellence

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Michel Marcon, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 23

Dossier : stations expérimentales

Bien-être, numérique, biosécurité… La station expérimentale de l’Ifip évolue pour répondre aux nouveaux enjeux de la filièreporcine.

PDF icon Michel Marcon, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 23
2020

La ventilation centralisée fait son entrée à Romillé

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Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 24

Dossier : stations expérimentales

Avec l’essor des exigences environnementales, la ventilation centralisée et le lavage d’air se sont imposés comme des solutions pertinentes pour les constructions neuves.
La station de Romillé ne fait pas exception.

PDF icon Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 24
2020

Un outil puissant pour évaluer le raclage en V

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Pascal Levasseur, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 25

Dossier : stations expérimentales 

Deux salles du bâtiment neuf de Romillé sont dédiées à la comparaison entre préfosse à lisier et raclage en V. L’objectif est de compléter les références techniques et environnementales acquises sur ces équipements.

PDF icon Pascal Levasseur, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 25
2020

Alimentation de précision sur toute la station

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Nathalie Quiniou et Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, n° 281, septembre, 2020, p. 26

Dossier : stations expérimentales

La station de Romillé passe de la chaîne à pastille à la distribution pneumatique pour gagner en précision et en flexibilité.

PDF icon Nathalie Quiniou et Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, n° 281, septembre, 2020, p. 26
2020

Trois modes de distribution de l'aliment

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Didier Gaudré, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 27

Dossier : stations expérimentales

La station de Romillé augmente son potentiel expérimental en installant trois modalités de distribution de l’aliment : sec, soupe et bouillie.

PDF icon Didier Gaudré, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 27
2020

Une case maternité liberté aux enjeux multiples

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Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 28-29

Dossier : stations expérimentales

La transformation des maternités bloquées en maternités liberté est une évolution d’ampleur pour la station de Romillé, dont la principale motivation est de répondre aux questions de la filière.

PDF icon Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 28-29
2020

Faire bon usage de la granulation

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 Didier Gaudré, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 38-39

L’Ifip a mené une série d’essais pour préciser le mode d’emploi optimal de la granulation des aliments. Il démontre notamment l’intérêt d’une granulation à basse température.

L’étude présentée a été réalisée dans le cadre du programme SOS Protein mené par les régions Bretagne et Pays de Loire, dont l’objectif est d’améliorer l’autonomie protéique des productions bovines, porcines et avicoles. Elle est le fruit de la collaboration entre différents partenaires dont des fabricants d’aliments, des firmes services, l’Inrae, Tecaliman et l’Ifip.

PDF icon Didier Gaudré, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 38-39
2020

Les éleveurs québécois misent sur des FAF simples

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Laurent Alibert et al., Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 42-43

Au Québec, plus de 70 % des élevages familiaux fabriquent leurs aliments à la ferme.
Les ateliers sont simples, mais efficaces (jusqu’à 8 tonnes par heure), tout en incorporant les micro-ingrédients avec un système de tapis vibrant.

PDF icon Laurent Alibert et al., Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 42-43
2020

Un procédé pour triturer du soja à la ferme

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Laurent Alibert, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 44

Fondée par Yves Campeau, la société Cookir a développé un procédé de cuisson à infrarouge...

PDF icon Laurent Alibert, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 44
2020

Mieux valoriser les effluents d'élevage

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Pascal Levasseur, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 55

Les instituts techniques (Ifip, Idele, Itavi et Arvalis) ont produit un document de référence composé de 32 fiches couvrant les déjections
de l’ensemble des productions animales : porcs, bovins, ovins, caprins, volailles et lapins.

PDF icon Pascal Levasseur, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 55
2020

Covid-19 : les porcs non réceptifs

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Anne Hémonic, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 58

Trois études, publiées en avril 2020, concluent sur la non-réceptivité des porcs au coronavirus responsable de la Covid-19 chez l’homme.

PDF icon Anne Hémonic, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc, 2020, n° 281, septembre, p. 58
2020

Allemagne : la filière porcine sous pression. Le pari de la montée en gamme

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Christine Roguet, Baromètre Porc, 2020, n° 511, septembre, synthèse du mois, p. 8

Après une décennie de croissance dynamique, la filière porcine allemande subit depuis le milieu des années 2010 une forte pression sociale et politique pour un élevage plus respectueux du bien-être animal et de l’environnement. Cette pression a conduit à un durcissement réglementaire et à un recul de la production qui pourrait s’accélérer.

PDF icon Christine Roguet, Baromètre Porc, 2020, n° 511, septembre, synthèse du mois, p. 8
2020

Evaluation of a decision support system for precision feeding of gestating sows

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Charlotte Gaillard (Inrae) et al., Journal of animal science, 2020, volume 98, n° 9, 1er septembre, p. 1-12

Precision feeding (PF) with the daily mixing of 2 diets with different lysine content (high (H) or low (L)) was previously reported for growing pigs to reduce protein intake and N excretion compared with a conventional feeding (CF) based on a single diet (C). Using a simulation approach based on farm data, the objective of the present paper was to describe and evaluate a decision support system for the PF of gestating sows allowing the daily distribution of a tailored ration to each sow. Two datasets, 1 of 2,511 gestations (farm A) and 1 of 2,528 gestations (farm B), reporting sows’ characteristics at insemination and objectives at farrowing were used as inputs for a Python model. This model, mainly based on InraPorc, calculates the nutrient requirements of each sow over gestation and simulates the impact of PF in comparison to CF. Simulated diets L, H, and C contained 3.0, 6.5, and 4.8 g/kg of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) and 2.0, 3.3, and 2.5 g/kg of standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD-P), respectively. The influence of farm, parity, gestation week, and their interactions, on calculated SID Lys and STTD-P requirements was analyzed applying a mixed model. The calculated SID Lys and STTD-P requirements increased markedly in the last third of gestation (P < 0.01) and were higher for primiparous than for multiparous sows, unless after week 14 for STTD-P requirement. The calculated SID AA and mineral requirements were lower for farm B than farm A (respectively, 2.94 vs. 3.08 g/kg for SID Lys and 1.30 vs. 1.35 g/kg for STTD-P, P >< 0.01). On average, feed L represented 86% and 92% of the feed projected to be delivered by the PF strategy in farms A and B, respectively. Compared to CF, average calculated dietary SID Lys content was lowered by 27% and 32% with PF, for farms A and B, respectively, while average calculated dietary phosphorus content was lowered by 13% and 16%. The simulated proportions of sows in excess and deficient in SID Lys were reduced with PF. Compared to CF, the PF strategy allowed for a 3.6% reduction in simulated feed cost per sow during gestation, and reduced nitrogen and phosphorus intake (by 11.0% and 13.8%, respectively) and excretion (by 16.7% and 15.4%, respectively). To conclude, these simulations indicate that PF of gestating sow appears to be relevant to meet the amino acid requirement while reducing feed cost, and supplies and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus>

source : https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-pdf/98/9/skaa255/33707394/skaa255.pdf

2020

Genome‐wide detection of copy number variants in European autochthonous and commercial pig breeds by whole‐genome sequencing of DNA pools identified breed‐characterising copy number states

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S Bovo et al., Animal Genetics, 2020, volume 51, n° 4, août, p. 541-556

In this study, we identified copy number variants (CNVs) in 19 European autochthonous pig breeds and in two commercial breeds (Italian Large White and Italian Duroc) that represent important genetic resources for this species. The genome of 725 pigs was sequenced using a breed‐specific DNA pooling approach (30–35 animals per pool) obtaining an average depth per pool of 42×. This approach maximised CNV discovery as well as the related copy number states characterising, on average, the analysed breeds. By mining more than 17.5 billion reads, we identified a total of 9592 CNVs (~683 CNVs per breed) and 3710 CNV regions (CNVRs; 1.15% of the reference pig genome), with an average of 77 CNVRs per breed that were considered as private. A few CNVRs were analysed in more detail, together with other information derived from sequencing data. For example, the CNVR encompassing the KIT gene was associated with coat colour phenotypes in the analysed breeds, confirming the role of the multiple copies in determining breed‐specific coat colours. The CNVR covering the MSRB3 gene was associated with ear size in most breeds. The CNVRs affecting the ELOVL6 and ZNF622 genes were private features observed in the Lithuanian Indigenous Wattle and in the Turopolje pig breeds respectively. Overall, the genome variability unravelled here can explain part of the genetic diversity among breeds and might contribute to explain their origin, history and adaptation to a variety of production systems.

2020

Farmers’ representations of the effects of precision livestock farming on human-animal relationships

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Florence Kling-Eveillard et al., Livestock Science, 2020, volume 238, août, 9 pages

Precision livestock farming affects the nature and frequency of farmers’ daily tasks, specifically in relation to animals. It consequently may modify how farmers consider their animals, the quality of the human-animal relationship and animal welfare. To better understand how new technologies impact human-animal relationships on the farm, a survey was carried out on 25 livestock farms in France. The farms raised dairy cows, gestating sows or broiler chickens using different equipment (sensors associated or not with robots). A qualitative thematic analysis to better identify farmers’ views on the different topics, and secondly a statistical analysis to identify if farmer profiles exist and to better understand the diversity of views were conducted. Most of the farmers expressed satisfaction about working with the new technology because their work becomes easier and allows more control over the management of the animals. Using PLF, the farmers describe a profession that has not fundamentally changed but which involves new tasks, new skills and daily schedules. Three farmers’ profiles were identified. Profile A farmers consider that one cannot talk about a human-animal relationship on their farm, and do not enjoy either touching or talking to their animals. Profile B farmers associate a good human-animal relationship with the animals’ welfare. Profile C is characterized by the central place occupied by animals and associate a good human-animal relationship with an absence of fear on the part of the animals. Farmers motivated by animals (profile C) find in precision livestock farming benefits related to animals, while the others (profiles A and B) find technical benefits detached from the animals. The farmers have room to manoeuvre in how they use the equipment; this can be seen for instance in the degree to which tasks are delegated to the equipment, which can be partial or total. Nevertheless, some farmers expressed concerns regarding the place of the new technologies on the farm, such as the risk of losing their own autonomy or their ability to observe animals and detect problems. Complementary studies could monitor these developments and contribute elements on the role of PLF in the sustainability of livestock farms.

2020

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