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Filière porcine ukrainienne : Illusions perdues

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Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2018, n° 489, synthèse du mois, septembre, p. 8, par Boris Duflot

Avec son potentiel de productions végétales, ses faibles coûts de main d’oeuvre et une tradition de consommation de porc, l’Ukraine pouvait devenir un acteur majeur du commerce international. Mais la propagation de la peste porcine africaine empêche quasiment toute exportation, tandis que le marché intérieur s’est réduit depuis la crise politique et économique de 2014.

PDF icon Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2018, n° 489, synthèse du mois, septembre, p. 8, par Boris Duflot
2018

On the influence of host genetics on gut microbiota composition in pigs

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J. Estellé et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Gut microbial population acts in complement with its host through nutrient digestion and health of the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in microbiota composition may then lead to changes in nutrient digestibility. The present study aimed at determining the effects of dietary fibre content on gut microbiota composition and apparent faecal nutrient digestibility in pigs. Furthermore, the relationships between microbiota and digestibility coefficients were investigated. Growing-finishing pigs (from 35 to 74 kg mean body weight) were fed alternatively a low-fibre (LF) and a high-fibre (HF) diet during 4 successive 3-week periods. Data collection for digestibility measurements was achieved during the last week of each period and faecal microbiota was collected at the end of each period for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The two diets fed by the pigs could be discriminated using 31 predicting OTUs in a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis (mean classification error-rate 3.9%). Furthermore, microbiota was resilient to diet effect. Pearson correlations between microbiota composition and apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, cellulose and hemicellulose emphasized the fact that in LF group, Clostridiaceae and Turicibacter were negatively correlated with protein and energy digestibility coefficients whereas Lactobacillus was positively correlated. In addition, Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella were negatively correlated with cell wall components digestibility. In HF diet, no significant correlation between microbiota and digestibility was found. The present study demonstrates that 3 weeks of adaptation to a new diet seem to be sufficient to observe resilience in growing pigs gut microbiota. In addition, faecal microbiota can be used to classify pigs according to their diet. Because some bacterial family and genera are favourable to digestibility, this study suggests that manipulations of bacterial populations can improve digestibility and feed efficiency. This study is part of the Feed-a-Gene Project, funded from the European Union’s H2020 Programme under grant agreement no. 633531.

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2018

Genetic determinism of boar taint and relationship with meat traits

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Claire Dugué et al., 69h Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018 

Entire male meat can have a major quality defect called boar taint, partly due to the presence of androstenone in fat.
This study evaluates the feasibility of a selection to directly decrease back fat androstenone level or indirectly by a selection on the plasma estradiol level and estimate the consequences on meat traits in purebred or crossbred pigs.
Pure Pietrain (P) and Pietrain Large White crossbred pigs (X) were measured for hormone levels: estradiol (Est) and testosterone (Tes), growth traits: average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), average daily feed intake (ADFI), carcass composition: carcass yield (CY), lean percentage (L%) and quality traits: pH in Ld and ham, drip loss, intramuscular fat and back fat androstenone level (Andr). The number of skin lesions (SL) was measured at three stages. Carcass additional measures were obtained by computerized tomography: loin eye area (LEA) and density, femur density, ham muscle/bone length ratio (HFR). The number of measured animals varied from 553 to 712 for P and from 556 to 736 and for X. Heritabilities were of medium values for estradiol level and high values for androstenone level. A selection to decrease P Andr level would increase HFR and pH in ham and decrease FCR and Tes in P pigs. On X it would increase CY, LEA, L% and HFR and decrease SL at fattening entrance, FCR, drip loss, ADFI and femur density. A selection to decrease P Est level would decrease Andr, FCR, ADFI and Tes in P pigs and Andr, SL at fattening entrance and Tes in X pigs. Heritabilities and genetic correlations indicate that a selection to decrease estradiol level would have overall favourable effects on meat traits. The authors are extremely grateful to the UEPR personnel, PEGASE technicians and IRSTEA. This study has been granted by ANR (ANR-10-GENOM_BTV-015, ANR-15-CE20-0008), Alliance R&D, InaPorc and FranceAgrimer.

PDF icon Claire Dugué et al., 69h EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018
2018

Gut microbiota analyses for sustainable European local porcine breeds: A TREASURE pilot study

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J. Estellé et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

The study of gut microbiota and its effects on hosts has emerged as an essential component of host homeostasis and global efficiency. Besides host’s influence on gut microbiota, major quantitative and qualitative changes may occur in the composition of the intestinal microbiota due to the influence of diet and other environmental factors.
In accordance with the TREASURE project global aim of enhancing sustainability of production systems for local pig breeds, the objective of our task was to conduct a pilot characterisation of intestinal microbiota in order to test its usefulness to characterize several local European pig populations and their production systems. This approach has been applied to populations belonging to the following European traditional breeds: Gascon (France), Iberian (Spain), Krskopolje (Slovenia), Mangalitsa (Serbia), Moravka (Serbia) and Turopolje (Croatia). For each breed, faecal samples have been collected along different experiments performed in the TREASURE project targeting the comprehension of a particular traditional production system (e.g. open-air farming), management practice, or the comparison of breeds. In all experiments, the metagenomics technique employed is the re-sequencing of the bacterial 16S in an Illumina MiSeq system. Overall, the results have shown that the gut microbiota analysis is a promising approach for the characterisation of these local breeds, by allowing a deeper understanding of their production systems and potentially allowing the development of new certification approaches. Preliminary results will be summarized in this communication. Funded by European Union’s H2020 RIA program (Grant agreement no. 634476).

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2018

Impact of weaning age on gut microbiota composition in piglets

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F.R. Massacci et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Weaning is a crucial period of pigs, accompanied by nutritional, environmental and social stresses. Studies comparing different ages at weaning have shown that increasing weaning age improves wean-to-finish growth performances and reduces mortality. However, the impact of weaning age on the early-life establishment of the gut microbiota remains under-investigated in pigs. Our objective was to compare the gut microbiota composition of piglets weaned at different ages. 48 piglets were divided in 4 groups of 12 animals weaned at either 14, 21, 28 or 42 days-of-age.
Faecal samples were collected at 3 different time points: day of weaning, 7 days after weaning and at 60 days of age. Faecal DNA bacterial composition was assessed by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene.
Bioinformatic and biostatistical analysis showed that each weaned group had significant differences between the sample points through weaning transition, confirming that the gut microbiota changes before and after weaning. In addition, microbiota diversity increased according to weaning age, with piglets weaned at 42 days-of-age having a highest alpha diversity and richness. Interestingly, piglets weaned at 42-days maintained a more stable diversity until day 60. We show that late weaning leads to a higher diversity of potentially beneficial microbes prior to the crucial challenge of weaning and might thus provide a competitive advantage to piglets.

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2018

Genomic mating allocation model with dominance to maximize overall genetic merit in Landrace pigs

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D. Gonzalez-Dieguez et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Mating allocation strategies that account for dominance can be of interest for maximizing the overall genetic merit of future offspring. In a genomic context, accounting for dominance effects in genetic evaluations is easier than in a classical pedigree-based context. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in terms of genetic gain, the efficiency of a genomic mating allocation model accounting for dominance in a Landrace pig population. Genetic variance components were estimated for three traits (age at 100 kg, backfat depth and average piglets weight per litter) using an additive and dominance GBLUP model with inbreeding. The estimated additive and dominance genetic variances were used to obtain additive and dominant SNP effects using a BLUP-SNP model. Then, additive breeding values (BV) and total genetic values (TGV, those including dominance) were predicted for the offspring of all possible matings between 40 boars and around 1,500 sows (the number of available sows depended on the trait). Following a traditional breeding scheme, the best matings resulting from 40 boars and 600 sows, were selected based either on BV or TGV using linear programming. The expected genetic gain was calculated as the difference between the mean BV (or the mean TGV) of selected matings and the mean BV (or the mean TGV) of all possible matings. Results show that, for the analysed traits, mating allocation is a feasible and a potential strategy to improve the productive performance of the offspring (i.e. to improve their TGV) without compromising the additive genetic gain in this Landrace pig population.

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2018

Towards the quantitative characterization of piglet robustness to weaning: A modelling approach

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M. Revilla et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018 

Weaning is a critical phase in swine production conditions because piglets cope with different stressors that impact its health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises economic and public health concerns such as the growing number of antimicrobial-resistant agents. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animal resilience to weaning. This task is hampered by the multiple-component nature of robustness. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. We monitored 414 Large White pigs housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning. We constructed a dynamic model based on the Gompertz-Makeham law to describe live weight during the first 75 days after weaning following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). The transition time between the two windows is individual specific as well as model calibration, performed for each animal. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation. The power of the model is that it provides biological parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. We are currently investigating how to combine these proxy parameters to provide a robustness/resilience index to weaning. Next step is to correlate this index with individual diarrhoea scores and other health status measurements such as blood biomarkers and faecal microbiota diversity.
We foresee that this study will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.

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2018

Integrating blood transcriptome and immunity traits to identify markers of immune capacity in pigs

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T. Maroilley et al., 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018

Understanding individual variability of immune capacity in livestock has become a priority to improve sustainability, with the aim to increase disease resistance and resilience in breeding programs. In this study, 550 60-day-old French Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) were monitored for 55 immunity traits (ITs) measured from blood samples (SUS_FLORA ANR funded project). The ITs included two types of parameters. First, parameters directly measured from blood: complete blood counts, counts of various cell subsets by flow cytometry, serum dosage of anti-M hyo IgG and haptoblobin. Second, parameters measured after in vitro stimulation of total blood: phagocytosis, production of cytokines (IL-1&”6;, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF&”5;, IFN&”7;) after stimulation by LPS or mitogenic agents. All animals were genotyped with 60K Illumina SNP chips. A subset of 243 piglets was chosen for blood transcriptome analysis using Agilent microarrays. We explored covariations between blood expression profiles and IT levels, and could draw lists of the most correlated genes with each IT. Each list represented candidate blood biomarkers potentially predictive of IT variations. As an example, we found 134 genes associated with phagocytosis capacity and we identified a subset of genes that could significantly predict levels of eight ITs related to phagocytosis by a sPLS approach. This gene subset included CXCR1, CCR1 and TLR2. Few candidate biomarkers were previously shown to be genetically controlled for their transcription in blood by eGWAS. Thus, our results provide new data to decipher the genetic architecture of IT variations. A next step will be to understand how IT variations could reflect individual robustness while facing pathogens, and how blood biomarkers could be used as predictors of immune capacity.

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2018

An online phenotype database: first step towards breeding programs in local pig breeds

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Marie-José Mercat et al., 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, le 27-31 août 2018, visuels d'intervention

In order to further allow implementation of breeding programs in local pig breeds, with selection objectives defined for each local breed, we aimed at developing a standardised recording of carcass and meat quality traits. These data have to be connected with herdbooks to estimate genetic parameters of the traits (heritabilities and genetic correlations) which are necessary to define breeding objectives. Today the situation is very different from one local breed to another. No or very few phenotypes are recorded in some of them, while breeding programs already exist for a few breeds. To promote phenotyping, a dedicated database and a website were developed in the frame of the TREASURE project. First, the required variables have been collected for six local breeds: Basque (FR), Bísaro (PT), Crna slavonska (HR), Gascon (FR), Krškopoljski (SI) and Schwäbisch-Hällisches (DE). In total 74 variables have been identified dealing with animal herdbook information (10), rearing and growth (22), carcass (22) and meat quality (20) attributes. The database is compatible with the various identifiers used in the different countries: animal IDs, breed, farm… codifications. Major attention has been paid to the description of measurement methods of traits. Thus, each carcass and meat quality phenotype is associated to a method description representing 35 additional variables. The website can be easily translated into several languages. The website and database are currently on test until the end of the TREASURE project. All the breeds studied in TREASURE are free to use these tools. The database can be duplicated so that each partner can host its own data. Funded by European Union H2020 RIA program (grant agreement no. 634476).

PDF icon Marie-José Mercat et al., 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, le 27-31 août 2018
2018

Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

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Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster

From July 2018 the EU reference for pig grading is the lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection of a half-carcass. Dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et Monziols (2018) developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes.

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster
2018

Treasure : Diversité des races locales de porcs et des systèmes de production pour des produits traditionnels de qualité élevée et des filières porcines durables

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Bénédicte Lebret (INRA), Marie José Mercat et Herveline Lenoir (IFIP),Salon International de l'Agriculture (SIA) 2018, 24 février-4 mars 2018, Paris, poster 

 

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2018

Développement de nouveaux outils haut débit pour l’évaluation précoce de la qualité de la viande de porc (QualiPorc)

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Sandrine Schwob et al., Innovations Agronomiques (FRA), 2018, volume 63, janvier, p. 407-419

Les perspectives en matière d'amélioration génétique de la qualité de viande (QV) reposent sur la mise au point de nouveaux outils haut débit, de prédiction précoce, peu coûteux et non invasifs. Pour cela, de nouvelles méthodes de mesure de QV, s’appuyant sur des technologies émergentes, ont été développées et testées en routine. L’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) permet de quantifier les teneurs en lipides intramusculaires (LIM) et caractériser le persillage dans le muscle Longissimus. La méthode d’analyse d’images a été automatisée pour améliorer les cadences de mesures (400 échantillons scannés par jour) et assurer la traçabilité des données. L’évolution du taux de LIM le long du muscle Longissimus analysée par IRM montre que l’échantillon prélevé au niveau de la 13ème côte est représentatif du taux de LIM moyen de la longe (R²=0.88). La spectroscopie visible et proche infrarouge (NIRS) permet, quant à elle, de prédire les rendements technologiques et les défauts de tranchage. Enfin, les données d’expression génique quantifiées dans le muscle Longissimus ont été exploitées afin d’identifier des biomarqueurs discriminant 3 classes de qualité technologique et sensorielle: à défaut, correct ou extra. Le meilleur modèle pour prédire l’appartenance d’un échantillon à une classe de qualité inclut 12 gènes.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6350/46562/file/Vol63-27-Schwob.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7LSo2f_oU

ENG

Development of high throughput methods to predict pork quality at industrial scale

This project aimed at providing new early and non-invasive predictors of pork quality usable in slaughter houses, to orientate use of carcasses and cuts and optimize their economic value. For this purpose, the project included development, testing and validation of various methods under industrial conditions. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology was used to estimate the Longissimus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and marbling. Image analysis method was automated to improve measurement rate (400 samples scanned per day) and ensure data traceability. MRI was also used to study the representativeness of IMF content determined at the 13th rib to assess average IMF of the whole Longissimus muscle. Results showed high repeatability and good predictive ability of Longissimus average IMF content with determination at the 13th rib level (R²=0.88). Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate cooking and slicing yields and structural defects. NIRS technology could predict slicing losses caused by paste-like and cohesion defects on processed loin slices. Finally, gene expressions quantified on Longissimus muscle were used to discriminate 3 pork quality classes: low, acceptable and extra technological and sensory quality levels. The best model to predict meat quality level of pork loins included expression levels of 12 genes.

https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/6350/46562/file/Vol63-27-Schwob.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7LSo2f_oU

2018

Survey of demographic and phenotypic data of local pig breeds of Treasure project

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Riccardo Bozzi (Université Degli Studi di Firenze (Florence), Italie) et al., Archivos de Zootecnia, IX Simposiio Internacional Sobre El Cerdo Mediterraneo, 2018, p. 1-4

ENG

The paper reports the results of a survey on the demographic and phenotypic characterization of 20 European local pig breeds involved in the H2020 TREASURE project including information on: demographic parameters, main morphological features, reproductive information, additional information collected at herd-level (i.e. temperament, holding, mating practices), origins and development of the breeds. Almost all the breeds (18 out of 20) possess a herd book even if the starting year is highly variable (from 1980 to 2006). Number of breeding females ranged from 24 (Moravka) to over 200,000 heads (Ibérico). Male/female ratio varied greatly with the highest values for the Italian breeds probably due to the different policy of animal recording. Almost all the breeds undergo a conservation program whereas really few are interested by other conservation techniques and for less than five breeds data related to effective number and inbreeding coefficient are easily available. Average values for teat number, litter size and weaned piglets are 12, 8 and 6 respectively with a great potential for their improvement. The depicted scenario is highly diversified and the data collected represent the starting point for the achievement of a collective trademark under the umbrella of the TREASURE project.
 
ESP
 
 Encuesta de datos demográficos y fenotípicos de razas locales de cerdos del proyecto Treasure
 
Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una encuesta de datos demográficos y fenotípicos de 20 razas locales de cerdos en estudio en el proyecto H2020 TREASURE y incluí información de: parámetros demográficos, características morfológicas principales, parámetros reproductivos, informaciones adicionales a nivel de los efectivos (ex. Temperamento, instalaciones, prácticas de cubrición), orígenes y desarrollo de las razas. Casi todas las razas (18 de 20) tienen libro genealógico, aunque su fecha de inicio varía mucho (de 1980 a 2006). El número de hembras reproductoras varía de 24 (Moravka) a más de 200 mil cabezas (Ibérico). La relación macho/hembra varía mucho con los valores más altos verificados en las razas italianas muy probablemente debido a una política diferente relativamente al registro de animales. Casi todas las razas tienen programas de conservación, aunque pocas están interesadas en otras técnicas de conservación y sólo en menos que 5 razas los datos relativos a número de efectivos y de coeficiente de consanguinidad están fácilmente disponibles. Los valores medios para números de pezones, tamaño de camada y lechones destetados son de 12, 8 y 6, respectivamente con un grande potencial para mejora. El escenario descrito es altamente diversificado y esta colecta de datos representa el punto de partida para una marca colectiva debajo del parasol del proyecto TREASURE.
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2018

Encadrement de la station de phénotypage du Rheu

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Claire Hassenfratz, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 51

A l’initiative de FG Porc, réunissant Axiom, Nucléus et l’IFIP, la nouvelle station de phénotypage a été bâtie en 2015. La gestion quotidienne de la station a été confiée à l’INRA -Unité Expérimentale Porcs de Rennes dans le cadre d’un accord de partenariat public-privé. Ce projet s’inscrit dans un triple objectif complémentaire entre les professionnels de la sélection et la recherche: (1) disposer d’un maximum de mesures pertinentes pour les programmes d’amélioration génétique du futur ; (2) pouvoir développer des travaux de recherche appliquée de qualité adaptés aux enjeux de la filière porcine ; (3) assurer la mise en application de phénotypage et des résultats des travaux dans les programmes de sélection. L’IFIP, en partenariat avec l’INRA, est missionné par le Ministère l’Agriculture pour assurer son encadrement technique. Les informations recueillies sont complémentaires à celles recueillies par les OSP en élevages ou en stations privées sur la croissance, l’efficacité alimentaire, la carcasse et la qualité de viande. La station est également le lieu privilégié pour tester de nouvelles mesures. C’est pourquoi elle est équipée d’une chaîne de distribution d’aliment multiphase permettant d’adapter finement la composition de l’aliment aux besoins des animaux par case d’une part et d’autre part de mettre en place des comparaisons de régimes alimentaires. Les DAC sont équipés de plateaux de pesée afin de suivre les cinétiques de croissance. Le tomographe à rayon X de l’IFIP pourra être utilisé sur les porcs en cours de contrôle.

La station constitue ainsi un outil de collecte de données à visées génétiques dont les résultats concernent l’ensemble de la filière. Compte tenu de l’intérêt collectif de ce projet, il a reçu le soutien financier des conseils régionaux de Basse Normandie, Bretagne et Pays de la Loire, ainsi que de France Agrimer. Uniquement consacrée au contrôle des collatéraux à des fins d’évaluation et de recueil de références en 2015 et 2016, elle
s’est ouverte à l’expérimentation dès 2017 en participant au projet européen Feeda-Gene qui étudie l’aspect génétique de l’aptitude à digérer l’aliment dans le cadre du Programme de Recherche et Innovation H2020. L’étude Microfeed (financement ANR), qui cherche à déterminer le rôle du microbiote intestinal sur l’efficacité alimentaire et la robustesse des animaux est menée en parallèle sur les mêmes animaux (cf. Valorisation de nouvelles données d’efficacité alimentaire pour la sélection). L’ensemble des données collectées sont sauvegardées dans la base de données nationale génétique et sont accessibles aux équipes de recherche.

PDF icon Claire Hassenfratz, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 51, fiche n° 22
2018

Valorisation de nouvelles données d’effi cacité alimentaire pour la sélection

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Alban Bouquet, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 46

L’efficacité alimentaire est un critère de sélection important pour la filière porcine. Depuis 2014, des investissements conséquents ont été réalisés par les entreprises de sélection françaises pour étendre la capacité de phénotypage des animaux sur ce critère grâce à l’installation de DAC en élevage. Le contrôle de candidats à la sélection sur l’efficacité alimentaire a pour but d’augmenter la précision de la sélection des futurs reproducteurs et donc le progrès génétique réalisé.
En parallèle, plusieurs programmes de recherche ont été mis en place sur cette thématique à la station de phénotypage FG Porc du Rheu (35). L’objectif de ces projets est d’acquérir des données sur de nouveaux caractères d’efficacité alimentaire mais aussi de mieux caractériser les interactions entre le type d’aliments et le travail de sélection.

PDF icon Alban Bouquet, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 46, fiche n° 18
2018

Evaluations génétiques et génomiques des populations porcines

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Sandrine Schwob, Alban Bouquet et Pauline Brehaut, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 53

Le travail de sélection a pour but d’améliorer le niveau moyen des performances des populations porcines sur des caractères d’intérêt économique pour l’ensemble de la filière porcine française. Ce travail d’amélioration génétique consiste à repérer les meilleurs individus d’une génération pour les garder comme reproducteurs. Pour cela, des modèles statistiques prédisent la valeur génétique (VG) des candidats à la sélection à partir de leurs performances propres et de celles de leurs apparentés et contemporains. Chaque semaine, cinq populations porcines (4 collectives : Large White lignée femelle, Landrace français, Piétrain et Large White lignée mâle, et 1 autonome : Duroc Axiom) sont évaluées et les VG sont transmises aux sélectionneurs, organismes de sélection porcine (OSP), groupements d’éleveurs et centres d’insémination animale (CIA).

PDF icon Sandrine Schwob, Alban Bouquet et Pauline Brehaut, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 53, fiche n° 24
2018

Animation technique pour le compte de l’Agence de la Sélection Porcine

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Joël Bidanel, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 50

L’Agence de la Sélection Porcine (ASP), organe de représentation des professionnels de la génétique, est amenée à traiter des dossiers techniques à la demande de ses adhérents ou du Ministère chargé de l’Agriculture. Depuis 2005, au sein d’une convention de partenariat, l’ASP confie l’animation et/ou la maîtrise d’oeuvre de ses travaux à l’IFIP.

La Direction Générale de la performance économique et environnementale des entreprises (DGPE) confie à l’ASP l’expertise des agréments zootechniques des Organismes de Sélection Porcine (OSP) : conformité aux exigences réglementaires, suivi de l’activité des OSP et centres de collecte de sperme (CIA) ; mise à disposition des utilisateurs de références.

PDF icon Joël Bidanel, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 50, fiche n° 21
2018

Conservation des ressources génétiques : Cryobanque Nationale et appui aux races locales

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Herveline Lenoir, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 54-55

Dans le cadre du suivi de la gestion des ressources génétiques, l’IFIP veille à la mise en place et à la réalisation du programme de conservation des 6 races locales porcines : le Porc Pie Noir du Pays Basque, le Porc de Bayeux, le Porc Gascon, le Porc Cul Noir Limousin, le Porc Blanc de l’Ouest et le Porc Nustrale.
Ce programme est axé sur la gestion des animaux vivants mais possède également une orientation ex situ avec l’adhésion au GIS Cryobanque Nationale. Par ailleurs, l’IFIP apporte sa contribution pour évaluer la gestion de la variabilité génétique intra-race des populations et calculer l’augmentation du taux de consanguinité des populations porcines en conservation et en sélection.

L’IFIP anime le Ligéral qui est l’association des livres généalogiques collectifs des races locales de porcs. Le Ligéral est l’organisme de sélection porcine qui a été agréé par le Ministère en charge de l’Agriculture pour tenir les livres généalogiques des six races locales porcines.

PDF icon Herveline Lenoir, bilan 2017, éditions IFIP, mai 2018, p. 54-55, fiche n° 25
2018

Des résultats variables dans l'utilisation de semence congelée chez les races locales porcines

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Marie-José Mercat et al., La Lettre de La Cryobanque Natonale (FRA), 2018, n° 13, juillet, 2 pages

L'insémination animale (IA) est très peu utilisée en races locales porcines. En dehors de la race Basque, elle se limite aux programmes de décongélation des semences de la Cryobanque Nationale (CBN) : doses en pellets ou en paillettes congelées il y a une trentaine ou une vingtaine d’années respectivement. A la décongélation, peu de spermatozoïdes sont mobiles dans les pellets. Aussi, nos prédécesseurs ont-ils été visionnaires et volontaires de mettre en place ces stocks qui ont tout de même déjà donné naissance à quelques porcelets de races locales. La congélation en paillettes a constitué une amélioration technique significative. Bien que peu pratiquée, y compris en sélection, l’IA avec des paillettes donne désormais des performances de reproduction satisfaisantes.

2018

Immunome differences between porcine ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches revealed by global transcriptome sequencing of gut-associated lymphoid tissues

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T. Maroilley et al., Scientific Reports, 2018, volume 8, n° 1, 13 juin, 12 pages

The epithelium of the intestinal mucosa and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) constitute an essential physical and immunological barrier against pathogens. In order to study the specificities of the GALT transcriptome in pigs, we compared the transcriptome profiles of jejunal and ileal Peyer’s patches (PPs), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and peripheral blood (PB) of four male piglets by RNA-Seq. We identified 1,103 differentially expressed (DE) genes between ileal PPs (IPPs) and jejunal PPs (JPPs), and six times more DE genes between PPs and MLNs. The master regulator genes FOXP3GATA3STAT4TBX21 and RORC were less expressed in IPPs compared to JPPs, whereas the transcription factor BCL6 was found more expressed in IPPs. In comparison between IPPs and JPPs, our analyses revealed predominant differential expression related to the differentiation of T cells into Th1, Th2, Th17 and iTreg in JPPs. Our results were consistent with previous reports regarding a higher T/B cells ratio in JPPs compared to IPPs. We found antisense transcription for respectively 24%, 22% and 14% of the transcripts detected in MLNs, PPs and PB, and significant positive correlations between PB and GALT transcriptomes. Allele-specific expression analyses revealed both shared and tissue-specific cis-genetic control of gene expression.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27019-7.pdf

2018

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