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Salivary and urinary metabolome analysis for pre-puberty-related biomarkers identification in porcine

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Gylène Gaudet et al., Animal, 2018, 5 septembre, 11 pages

Estrus synchronization is important for optimal management of gilt reproduction in pig farms. Hormonal treatments, such as synthetic progestogens, are used on a routine basis, but there is a growing demand for non-hormonal alternative breeding tools. Before puberty, gilts exhibit a 'waiting period,' related to the ovarian development and gonadotrophin secretions, during which external stimulations, such as boar exposure, could induce and synchronize first ovulation. Practical non-invasive tools for identification of this period in farms are lacking. During this period, urinary oestrone levels are high, but urine sampling is difficult in group-housed females. The aim of this work was to search for specific biomarkers of the 'waiting period' in saliva and urine. In total, nine 144- to 147-day-old Large White gilts were subjected to trans-abdominal ultrasonography three times a week for 5 weeks until puberty detection (week -5 to week -1 before puberty). Urine and saliva samples were collected for oestrone assay to detect the 'waiting period' and for metabolome analysis using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect potential biomarkers of the 'waiting period.' Gilts were slaughtered 7 days after puberty detection for puberty confirmation. Results were consistent with ultrasonography data for six gilts. Urine and saliva samples from these six gilts were analyzed. Urinary estrone concentration significantly increased 2 weeks before puberty detection. Metabolome analysis of urine samples allowed the identification of 78 spectral bins, among them, 42 low-molecular-weight metabolites were identified. Metabolome analysis of salivary samples allowed the identification of 59 spectral bins, among them, 23 low-molecular-weight metabolites were detected and 17 were identified. No potential biomarker was identified in urinary samples. In saliva, butyrate and 2HOvalerate, 5.79 ppm (putatively uridine), formate, malonate and propionate could be biomarker candidates to ascertain the pre-puberty period in gilt reproduction. These results confirm that non-invasive salivary samples could allow the identification of the physiological status of the gilts and presumably the optimal time for application of the boar effect. This could contribute to synchronize puberty onset and hence to develop non-hormonal breeding tools.

2018

Search for salivary biomarkers for optimal application of male effet in pre-pubertal gilts

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Proc 18th International Congress on animal reproduction (ICAR), 26-30 juin 2016, Tours, France (Abstract), par Goudet G et al.

2017

Urinary signature of pig carcasses with boar taint by liquid chromagraphy-high resolution mass spectrometry

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Cristina C. Jacob et al., Food Additives & Contaminants : Part A, version pas encore finalisée, 29 pages

Boar taint is an offensive odor that can occur while cooking pork or pork products and is identified in some uncastrated male pigs that have reached puberty. It is widely held that boar taint is the result of the accumulation in back-fat of two malodorous compounds: androstenone and skatole. The purpose of the present study was to assess a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics strategy to investigate the metabolic profile of urine samples from pig carcasses presenting low (untainted) and high (tainted) levels of androstenone and skatole in back fat. Urine samples were analyzed by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS. Discrimination between tainted and untainted animals was observed by application of multivariate statistical analysis, which allowed to highlight candidate urinary biomarkers. These urinary metabolites were positively correlated to androstenone and skatole levels in back fat. Therefore, the present study suggested that the measurement of these urinary metabolites might provide information with regard to androstenone and skatole levels in live pigs.

2017

Recherche de biomarqueurs urinaires du moment optimal d’exposition à l’effet mâle

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Poster.

Notre objectif à long terme est de développer des alternatives aux traitements hormonaux pour la synchronisation des oestrus des cochettes lors de l’entrée dans la première bande.
Les cochettes atteignent précocement un stade physiologique de pré-puberté au cours duquel une augmentation des concentrations d’estrone urinaire est observée. Au cours de la phase de pré-puberté, une stimulation externe peut déclencher la première ovulation. L’exposition au verrat (effet mâle) pourrait favoriser le déclenchement et la synchronisation de la puberté, si elle est appliquée dans cette période de pré-puberté. Actuellement, le moment optimal d’exposition au verrat n’est pas clairement défini.
L’objectif de cette étude est de caractériser la phase de pré-puberté et de trouver des biomarqueurs de cette phase.

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2016

Recherche de biomarqueurs urinaires du moment optimal d’exposition à l’effet mâle

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Poster.

FR

L’élevage porcin conventionnel se caractérise par une conduite en bandes qui présente de nombreux avantages organisationnels (surveillance des mises-bas, ajustement de la taille des portées, gestion des porcelets…) et sanitaires (nettoyage-désinfection des locaux entre bandes). Des traitements progestatifs à l’aide d’agonistes de synthèse de la progestérone sont administrés par une majorité d’éleveurs pour synchroniser les cycles des cochettes de renouvellement et les intégrer dans les bandes (Boulot et al., 2005). Les interrogations concernant les effets possibles des résidus hormonaux sur la santé humaine et l’environnement conduisent à mettre en place de nouvelles pratiques d’élevage. Notre objectif à long terme est de développer des alternatives aux traitements hormonaux pour la synchronisation des oestrus des cochettes notamment lors de l’entrée dans la première bande.
Avant la première ovulation, les cochettes atteignent un stade physiologique de pré-puberté au cours duquel une augmentation des concentrations d’estrone urinaire est observée (Camous et al., 1985). Pendant la phase de pré-puberté, une stimulation externe peut déclencher la première ovulation. L’exposition au verrat (appelée effet mâle) pourrait favoriser le déclenchement et la synchronisation de la puberté s’il est appliqué pendant cette période de pré-puberté (Prunier, 1989). Cette pratique est très peu utilisée en élevage, car le moment optimal et les modalités d’exposition au verrat ne sont pas clairement définis. L’objectif de cette étude est de mieux caractériser la phase de pré-puberté, et de rechercher des biomarqueurs de cette phase dans l’urine. Une meilleure connaissance de la phase de pré-puberté permettra d’améliorer le repérage des femelles à stimuler et de diminuer le nombre de femelles mises à la reproduction alors qu’elles sont impubères.

ENG

Search for urinary biomarkers for optimal application of male effect

Effective methods for synchronizing oestrus in gilts are crucial for implementation of batch management and optimum reproductive performances. Altrenogest treatments are used on a routine basis in pig farms, but there is growing demand for alternative non-hormonal breeding tools. Before puberty, gilts exhibit a “waiting period”, related to ovarian development and gonadotrophin secretions, during which urinary oestrone concentration increase. During this “waiting period”, an external stimulation, such as boar exposure, could induce the first ovulation. As non-invasive tools are required to increase knowledge about the “waiting period”, the aim of this work is to search for specific biomarkers of this period in urine. Trans-abdominal ultrasonographies were carried out for 5 weeks in six 140 days old Large White gilts until puberty detection (week -5 to week -1 before puberty). Urinary samples were collected for oestrone assay and metabolome analysis using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Gilts were then slaughtered 7 days after puberty detection for puberty confirmation. Urinary oestrone concentration increases from week -2 to the day of puberty detection. Metabolome analysis allows the identification of 78 spectral bins, 8 of them showing significant differences between weeks. Metabolites whose concentration significantly increase or decrease during the “waiting period” (such as Trigonelline, N-acetyl-X…) could be interesting biomarkers of this period. These results confirm that non invasive urinary samples could make it possible to detect optimal time for application of boar effect. Potential urinary biomarkers of this period have been identified. This could contribute to decreasing the number of females mated while they are pre-pubertal.

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
2016