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Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

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Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster

From July 2018 the EU reference for pig grading is the lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection of a half-carcass. Dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et Monziols (2018) developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes.

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64rd ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie, poster
2018

Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

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Gérard Dumas et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie

In the framework of pig carcass classification a new EU regulation applying from July 2018 makes compulsory the use of a new reference. It is a lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection (LMPtd) of a halfcarcass. Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et al. [1] developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes. 

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64th ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie
2018

Pork cuts composition measured by scanner as influenced by sex and halothane genotype

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 54-55

The aim of this study was to quantify the main effects influencing the tissue composition measured by computed tomography (CT) of pork cuts. A representative sample of the French pig slaughtering was selected in three abattoirs and stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females). An ear sample was analysed for Halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were CT scanned. Images were thresholded in order to determine muscle, fat and bone weight. Sex and Hal effects on tissues proportions were analysed by variance analysis. Interaction between sec and >Hal was never significant. Sex was significant on all the tissues proportions in the cuts, except the bone % in ham and loin. Hal was significant on all the tissueds proportions in the cuts, except the fat % in shoulder and the bone % in belly. Sex had a major effect (1 standard deviaiton) on the muscle % in the loin and the fat % in the shoulder. The important effects of sex and Hal on pork cuts composition should be taken into account by pork industry for sorting cuts and carcasses and for selecting suppliers.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p.
2017

Vision versus reflectance technology to estimate pork cuts composition

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 115-116

The objective of this article is to compare the precision of two carcass classification methods to assess the lean meat percentage (LM%) of the major pork cuts. One method is automatic by vision (CSB Image-Meater®, IM) and the other is semi-automatic by reflectance (CGM). A sample of 241 carcasses, comprising 50% of females and 50% of castrated males, was measured by both methods. The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were weighed and scanned by X-Ray tomography. Each LM% was regressed on the one hand on the two CGM thicknesses and, on the other hand, on the four IM thicknesses. The thickness M4 of IM was not significant. The hierarchy of the cuts has been preserved in therms of increasing residual standard deviation (RSD): ham, shoulder, loin and belly. The RSDrose about 15% for the limbs and 30-35% for the trunk. The help of carcass classification for directing cutting should turn out to be weakened.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Conséquences of the future EU regulation on pig carcass classification

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 277-278

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the main consequences of the change of the EU regulation on pig carcass classification, in particular the change of the reference lean meat percentage (LMP). A sample of 29 pigs was selected in two abattoirs and stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females). The left half carcasses as well as the four main cuts were scanned by computed tomography (CT). All cuts were then dissected. CT images were thresholded in order to determine lean meat. The future reference (LP in the carcass) will be 2.8% lowe rthan the present one (LMP in the fourmain cuts), i.E. about 1.7 percentage points. The French CT procedure could be fitted via a multiplicative factor of 0.965. This procedure is robust to the main factors - sex, genotype, fatness - influencing the classification. This would allow to use this scaling factor without new dissections for the future trials for approval of classification methods in France. It could be used too in other countries interested in this CT procedure.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Vision versus reflectance technology for deviations for sex and halothane genotype in pig carcass classification

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Gérard Daumas et al. 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 50-51

This work aims to compare the systematic deviations for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations between pig classification methods by automatic vision and semi-automatic relfectance. A sample of 209 carcasses, stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females), was measured by CSB Image-Meater® (IM) and CGM. An car sample was analysed for halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were weighed and scanned by X-ray tomography in order to detemrine lean meat percentage (LMP). For each device the LMP was regressed on the fat and muscle depths included in the official equations. For each equation were calculated the systematic deviations per level of the sex and Hal factors by mean difference between predicted and observed values. The LMP overestimation for castrated males increased from 0.4% with CGM to 0.7% with IM. The LMP overestimation for non-sensitive homosygotes Hal, not significant with CGM, rose to 0.5%. Systematic deviations for sexual types could be cancelled at least by a differentiated offset in the prediction equation.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et al. 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 50-51
2017

Estimation by vision of pork cuts composition for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 52-53

This work aims to quantify the systematic deviations for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations in the estimation by automatic vision of pork cuts composition. A sample of 208 carcasses, startified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females), was measured on line by the classification method CSB Image-Meater® (IM). An ear sample was analysed for halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were CT scanned  in order to determine the lean meat percentage (LMP) in each cut. These LMPs were regressed on six IM potential predictors and the carcass weight. For each equation were calculated the systematic deviations per level of the sex and Hal factors by mean difference between predicted and observed values. The absolute deviation per sexual types was the lowest (0.5%) in ham and the highest (1.4%) in belly. The deviations per Hal genotype ranged from 0.3% in shoulder to 0.8% in belly. In all models females and Hal heterozygotes were underestimated and vice-versa. The deviations per Hal genotype were about the half than per sex. The deviations per sex could be removed by at least a different intercept in the prediction equations.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p.
2017

Vision versus reflectance technology for deviations for sex and halothane genotypes in pig carcass classification

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Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, poster

Automation of pig carcass classification entailed a change in the location of the measured variables. Since mid-2013 in France the thicknesses measured on the back, laterally to the splitline, were replaced by thicknesses measured at the ham-loin junction on the splitline. Systematic deviations by sub-population, whose knowledge is of great interest in the chain, have thus been modified. The objective of this work was to quantify the systematic deviations related to sex and halothane genotype factors for CGM and CSB Image-Meater® classification methods, well known for their effects on carcass composition.

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, pos
2017

Vision versus reflectance technology to estimate pork cuts composition

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Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, poster

Sorting meat cuts is an ongoing challenge. Many pork plants use weighing and carcass grading information for pre-sorting. Automation of pig carcass classification entailed a change in the location of the measured variables. Since mid-2013 in France the thicknesses measured by reflectance (CGM) on the back, laterally to the splitline, were replaced by thicknesses measured by vision (CSB Image-Meater®) at the ham-loin junction on the splitline. The objective of this work was to compare the precision of these two classification methods to predict the proportion of muscle in the main cuts.

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Estimation by vision of pork cuts composition for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations

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Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, poster

The meat industry is interested in the prediction of the cut yields in order to drive the cutting as effi ciently as possible. These yields can be predicted
with the variables used in the compulsory task of carcass weighing and grading. Nevertheless, the factors having an effect on carcass grading could
have a different effect on the cut grading, specifi c to each cut. This work aims to quantify the systematic deviations for sex and halothane genotype
subpopulations in the estimation of pork cuts composition by the automatic vision system called CSB Image-Meater® .

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, pos
2017

Consequences of the future EU regulation on pig carcass classification

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Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, poster

A new EU regulation on classification of beef, pig and sheep carcasses was published in July 2017 and shall apply from 11 July 2018.

For pig carcasses the reference of lean meat percentage, based on partial dissection (LMPPD) since 2006, will be replaced by a lean meat percentage based on total dissection (LMPTD). Manual total dissection can be replaced by CT virtual dissection of half carcasses if adjusted.

Sample should be stratified, but the minimal size would be 10 carcasses. The aim of this paper is to assess the main consequences of this future EU regulation on pig carcass classification.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Pork cuts composition measured by scanner as infl uenced by sex and halothane genotype

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Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, poster

Knowledge of the main factors infl uencing the cuts composition can help both sorting cuts and designing composition experiments. Sex and
halothane gene, well known for their effects on carcass composition, also deserve to be studied on cuts. The aim of this work is to study the sex
and halothane gene effects on the proportions of tissues in the four main pork cuts: ham, shoulder, loin and belly. Composition was determined by
scanner, a modern technique, which has recently been intensively studied in the COST action FAIM (Farm Animal Imaging).

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, pos
2017

Utilisation des images tomographiques pour calibrer les appareils de classement des carcasses

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Fiche n° 030 : classification des pièces et des carcasses

La Commission européenne a lancé une refonte de la réglementation sur la classification des carcasses de porcins, bovins et ovins et sur la déclaration des prix. Concernant les porcs, un des points centraux des discussions porte sur la définition du critère de classement. La coexistence de 2 références : le TMP et le taux de muscle de la carcasse est source de distorsions. De plus, leur mesure par dissection manuelle ou tomographie RX (scanner) est un point de divergence. Le statut de la tomographie devrait être éclairci. La difficulté est que, contrairement à la dissection manuelle, il n’y a pas eu d’accord jusqu’à présent sur une procédure européenne de dissection virtuelle par scanner.
Tant que le scanner ne sera pas reconnu comme référence primaire, il faudra le calibrer par rapport à des dissections, avec le risque de devoir refaire des dissections à chaque actualisation de méthodes de classement ou calibrage de nouvelles méthodes.
Aussi, l’objectif de développer une référence européenne de mesure du % de muscle par scanner a été inscrit dans le réseau européen sur l’imagerie
animale des animaux d’élevage (FAIM).
Pour quantifier les différences entre scanners, l’Ifip a proposé un protocole simple d’évaluation de la qualité de la mesure de la densité, d’une part, et du volume, d’autre part.

PDF icon fiche_bilan2015_030.pdf
2016

Méthodes de classement des carcasses

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Fiche n° 054 : gestion et amélioration des qualités technologiques des produits

La Commission européenne a lancé une refonte de la réglementation sur la classification des carcasses de porcins, bovins et ovins et sur la déclaration des prix.
Concernant les porcs, un des points centraux des discussions porte sur la définition du critère de classement.
La coexistence de 2 références : le TMP et le taux de muscle de la carcasse est source de distorsions.
De plus, leur mesure par dissection manuelle ou tomographie RX (scanner) est un point de divergence. Le statut de la tomographie devrait être éclairci. La difficulté est que, contrairement à la dissection manuelle, il n’y a pas eu d’accord jusqu’à présent sur une procédure européenne de dissection virtuelle par scanner.
Tant que le scanner ne sera pas reconnu comme référence primaire, il faudra le calibrer par rapport à des dissections, avec le risque de devoir refaire des dissections à chaque actualisation de méthodes de classement ou calibrage de nouvelles méthodes.
Aussi, l’objectif de développer une référence européenne de mesure du % de muscle par scanner a été inscrit dans le réseau européen FAIM sur l’imagerie animale des animaux d’élevage.

PDF icon fiche_bilan2014_054.pdf
2015

De nouveaux capteurs pour maîtriser la qualité des viandes de porc

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visuel d'intervention.

Les abattoirs font le lien technologique et économique entre les attentes des marchés et la production de l’élevage. Les technologies nouvelles apparaissent dans l’industrie de la viande et sont expérimentées dans plusieurs directions. La tomographie X détermine la composition d’une carcasse dans ses trois tissus principaux, le maigre le gras et l’os. Elle est déjà utilisée pour réaliser des dissections virtuelles afin de calibrer les appareils de classement. Cette technologie RX est expérimentée en ligne sur des chaines de désossage et sert à programmer les robots de désossage selon la conformation individuelle des pièces. Des caméras en lumière visible installées dans les abattoirs pour classer les carcasses selon des épaisseurs de maigre et de gras permettent la répartition des plus-values aux éleveurs. Les spectres NIRS de réflexion ou de réfraction sont utilisés pour mesurer la composition de mêlées en gras et en maigre. Leur utilisation est en cours de validation en substitution du pH pour prédire au stade abattoir la qualité technologique des jambons. L’analyse hyperspectrale (incluant les ondes visibles et infra rouge) devient possible grâce aux vitesses des calculateurs aujourd’hui disponibles. Elle devrait renforcer la précision de l’analyse NIRS et améliorer la qualité de caractérisation des viandes porcines.

PDF icon nassy2014jmstv.pdf
2014

De nouveaux capteurs pour maîtriser la qualité des viandes de porc

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Les abattoirs font le lien technologique et économique entre les attentes des marchés et la production de l’élevage. Les technologies nouvelles apparaissent dans l’industrie de la viande et sont expérimentées dans plusieurs directions. La tomographie X détermine la composition d’une carcasse dans ses trois tissus principaux, le maigre le gras et l’os. Elle est déjà utilisée pour réaliser des dissections virtuelles afin de calibrer les appareils de classement. Cette technologie RX est expérimentée en ligne sur des chaines de désossage et sert à programmer les robots de désossage selon la conformation individuelle des pièces. Des caméras en lumière visible installées dans les abattoirs pour classer les carcasses selon des épaisseurs de maigre et de gras permettent la répartition des plus-values aux éleveurs. Les spectres NIRS de réflexion ou de réfraction sont utilisés pour mesurer la composition de mêlées en gras et en maigre. Leur utilisation est en cours de validation en substitution du pH pour prédire au stade abattoir la qualité technologique des jambons. L’analyse hyperspectrale (incluant les ondes visibles et infra rouge) devient possible grâce aux vitesses des calculateurs aujourd’hui disponibles. Elle devrait renforcer la précision de l’analyse NIRS et améliorer la qualité de caractérisation des viandes porcines.

New captors for use in slaughterhouses and for transformation in order to measure carcass composition and characterize technological quality of meat

Slaughterhouses hold a strategic position in the center of the pork industry as they are the technological and economic link between market expectations and livestock production. New technologies, proven in other industries, have appeared in the meat industry and are being tested. X-ray tomography determines accurately and nondestructively in pig carcass, the proportion of three main tissues, fat, lean and bones. X-ray is already used to perform virtual dissections to calibrate grading devices. This X-ray technology is experienced on deboning lines to program deboning robots according to the individual conformation of pieces. Visible light cameras are now installed in slaughterhouses to classify carcasses according to thickness of lean and fat to allow the distribution of gain payments to farmers. The infrared spectra (NIRS) of reflection or refraction are quite widely used to measure the composition of mixed fat and lean. Their use is being validated for substitution to pH to predict, at the slaughterhouse stage, the technological quality of hams. Hyperspectral analysis (including visible and infrared rays) becomes possible thanks to the speed of computers available today. It should enhance the accuracy of the NIRS analysis and improve the characterization of pig meat.

2014

Impact of pig population (light or heavy) on computed tomography (CT) and dissection relationship for lean meat percentage measurement

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• According to the EU regulation (EC n°1249/2008), all pig carcasses must be classified according to an approved classification method. The approval of a classification method consists in a calibration trial against a lean meat percentage (LMP) measurement reference method.
• The latest version of the EU regulation considers three different LMP measurement methods: total dissection of the left half carcass, partial four joint EU dissection carried out according to the Walstra and Merkus method (Walstra and Merkus, 1996). Total LMP measurement with a computed tomography (CT) scanner may be used, provided that the CT method of choice has been shown by the user to be equivalent to total dissection.
• The objective of this work is to achieve a new step in the definition of the terms of use of the CT in a calibration trial.

PDF icon monziols2013.pdf
2013

An accurate and simple Computed Tomography approach for measuring the lean meat percentage of pig cuts (une approche précise et simple de la mesure du taux de viande maigre des découpes de porc par tomodensitométrie)

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The global challenge was to develop a robust, unbiased, accurate and simple reference method for measuring the lean meat weight and percentage (in live animals, carcasses, cuts and meat pieces). The principal aim of this study was first to develop such a method on pig cuts.

PDF icon An accurate and simple Computed Tomography approach for measuring the lean meat percentage of pig cuts<br /><br /><br />(une approche précise et simple de la mesure du taux de viande maigre des découpes de porc par tomodensitométrie)
2011

Comparaison entre la tomodensitométrie et la dissection pour calibrer les méthodes de classification du porc

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Poster.
PDF icon Comparaison entre la tomodensitométrie et la dissection pour calibrer les méthodes de classification du porc
2011

Comparison between computed tomography and dissection for calibrating pig classification methods (Comparaison entre la tomodensitométrie et la dissection pour calibrer les méthodes de classification du porc)

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Since 2009 the EU regulation concerning pig classification has authorised dissection as well as Computed Tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to compare the errors in both references when calibrating the French classification methods. A new CT procedure, which is both accurate and simple to use, was tested.

A representative sample of sixty-three pig carcases were measured using two French classification methods, CGM and ZP. Left sides were jointed into the four primal cuts and scanned using a spiral CT, before dissection. The four cuts were then fully dissected.

PDF icon Comparison between computed tomography and dissection for calibrating pig classification methods<br /><br /><br />(Comparaison entre la tomodensitométrie et la dissection pour calibrer les méthodes de classification du porc)
2011

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