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L'efficacité digestive est-elle un caractère intéressant pour améliorer l'efficacité alimentaire chez le porc ?

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Vanille Déru (Inrae) et al., 52e Journées de la Recherche Porcine (FRA), 2020, 4 et 5 février, Paris, p. 13-18

L’utilisation de régimes avec des teneurs accrues en fibres provenant d’aliments alternatifs, moins digestibles pour les porcs, est une solution utilisée pour limiter l’impact du coût de l’aliment en production porcine. L’étude a pour objectif de déterminer l’impact d’une teneur accrue en fibres (F) dans l’aliment sur la digestibilité chez le porc en croissance et d’estimer les paramètres génétiques de celle-ci. Un total de 654 porcs Large White a été nourri avec un régime conventionnel (CO) et 588 de leurs pleins-frères avec un régime F. Pour chaque porc, les coefficients d’utilisation digestive (CUD) de l’énergie, de la matière organique et de l’azote ont été prédits à partir d’échantillons de fèces analysés par spectrométrie dans le proche infrarouge. La consommation moyenne journalière (CMJ) et résiduelle (CMJR), le gain moyen quotidien (GMQ), l’indice de consommation (IC), le taux de muscle des pièces (TMP), le rendement en carcasse (RDT) et des caractères de qualité de la viande (CQV) ont été enregistrés sur chaque animal. Les trois CUD étaient significativement plus faibles pour les porcs nourris avec le régime F que les porcs nourris avec le régime CO (-6 à -7 %). Les trois CUD étaient modérément à fortement héritables (de 0,38±0,12 à 0,40±0,12 et de 0,54±0,15 à 0,56±0,15, respectivement, dans les régimes CO et F). Les trois CUD étaient favorablement corrélés à l’IC, la CMJ et la CMJR, mais défavorablement corrélés avec le GMQ et les CQV. Pour conclure, la digestibilité serait un caractère intéressant à ajouter dans les schémas de sélection afin d’affiner les décisions de sélection concernant l’efficacité alimentaire. Cependant, les corrélations génétiques défavorables avec le GMQ et les CQV notamment devront être prises en compte.

ENG

Is digestive efficiency a useful trait for improving pig feed efficiency?

Feeding diets with increased dietary fibre content from alternative by-products, which are less digestible for pigs, is a solution used to decrease the impact of increased feed costs on pig production. This study aimed to determine the impact of an alternative diet with increased fibre content (F) on pig digestibility and to estimate genetic parameters of digestibility. A total of 654 Large White pigs were fed a conventional diet (CO), and 588 of their full-sibs were fed a F diet. For each pig, digestibility coefficients (DC) of energy, organic matter, and nitrogen were predicted from faeces samples analysed with near infrared spectrometry. Individual daily feed intake (DFI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), lean meat percentage (LMP), carcass yield (CY) and meat quality traits (MQT) were recorded for each pig. The three DC were significantly lower for pigs fed the F diet than pigs fed the CO diet (-6 to -7%). The three DC were moderately to highly heritable (from 0.38±0.12 to 0.40±0.12 and from 0.54±0.15 to 0.56±0.15 for the CO and the F diet, respectively). The three DC were favourably correlated with FCR, DFI and RFI, but unfavourably with ADG and MQT. To conclude, digestibility could be a useful trait to include in breeding schemes to improve selection decisions about feed efficiency. However, it would have to be selected along with ADG and MQT to avoid adverse genetic trends on the latter traits.

2020

Digestive efficiency is a heritable trait to further improve feed efficiency in pigs

Consulter le resumé

Vanille Déru (INRA/ France Génétique Porc) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, visuels d'intervention

The use of diets with dietary fibres from alternative feedstuffs less digestible for pigs is a solution considered to limit the impact of increased feed costs on pig production. This study aimed at determining the impact of an alternative diet with fibres on individual digestive efficiency coefficients, and to estimate their heritabilities and genetic correlations with other production traits. A total of 480 Large White pigs were fed a high fibre diet (FD) and 547 of their sibs were fed a conventional diet (CO). For each animal, digestibility coefficients (DC) of energy, organic matter, and nitrogen were predicted from faeces samples analysed with near infrared spectrophotometry.

Individual daily feed intake (DFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded as well as lean mean percentage (LMP), carcass yield (CY) and meat quality traits. The FD pigs had significantly lower DC than CO pigs (-5 to 6 points). The DC were moderately to highly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 0.41±0.14 to 0.50±0.15 in CO, and from 0.62±0.17 to 0.70±0.17 in FD. Genetic correlations between DC and ADG (from -0.65 to -0.52), FCR (from -0.75 to -0.33), and DFI (from -0.83 to -0.57) were high and negative in both diets. The DC were slightly unfavourably correlated with CY (from -0.24 to -0.11) and favourably correlated with LMP (from 0.03 to 0.29). Genetic correlations were generally unfavourable with meat quality traits (from -0.75 to 0.09). Genetic correlations of DC between diets were close to 1, so no interaction between feed and genetics could be evidenced for these traits. To conclude, DC measured in farm conditions are interesting criteria for selection to account for animal digestive capacity, due to moderate to high heritabilities and high genetic correlations with FCR.

However, according to these first results, it would have to be selected together with carcass yield and meat quality to avoid adverse genetic trends on the latter traits.

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2019