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Digestive efficiency is a heritable trait to further improve feed efficiency in pigs

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Vanille Déru (INRA/ France Génétique Porc) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415

The use of diets with dietary fibres from alternative feedstuffs less digestible for pigs is a solution considered to limit the impact of increased feed costs on pig production. This study aimed at determining the impact of an alternative diet with fibres on individual digestive efficiency coefficients, and to estimate their heritabilities and genetic correlations with other production traits. A total of 480 Large White pigs were fed a high fibre diet (FD) and 547 of their sibs were fed a conventional diet (CO). For each animal, digestibility coefficients (DC) of energy, organic matter, and nitrogen were predicted from faeces samples analysed with near infrared spectrophotometry.

Individual daily feed intake (DFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded as well as lean mean percentage (LMP), carcass yield (CY) and meat quality traits. The FD pigs had significantly lower DC than CO pigs (-5 to 6 points). The DC were moderately to highly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 0.41±0.14 to 0.50±0.15 in CO, and from 0.62±0.17 to 0.70±0.17 in FD. Genetic correlations between DC and ADG (from -0.65 to -0.52), FCR (from -0.75 to -0.33), and DFI (from -0.83 to -0.57) were high and negative in both diets. The DC were slightly unfavourably correlated with CY (from -0.24 to -0.11) and favourably correlated with LMP (from 0.03 to 0.29). Genetic correlations were generally unfavourable with meat quality traits (from -0.75 to 0.09). Genetic correlations of DC between diets were close to 1, so no interaction between feed and genetics could be evidenced for these traits. To conclude, DC measured in farm conditions are interesting criteria for selection to account for animal digestive capacity, due to moderate to high heritabilities and high genetic correlations with FCR.

However, according to these first results, it would have to be selected together with carcass yield and meat quality to avoid adverse genetic trends on the latter traits.

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2019

Incidence of heating the liquid feed on performance of fattening pigs

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Eric Royer et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415

Pig farms producing their own renewable energy could improve animal health or performance by the controlled heating of liquid feed. This study evaluated the effects of different liquid feed temperature on performance of growing-finishing pigs. For the fattening period (27.5 to 112 kg), a total of 144 pigs received, according to plan, a growing then a finishing diet mixed with water in a ratio of 2.8:1 l/kg and distributed at 10, 20 or 30 °C. Pigs of each treatment were allocated to 8 pens of 6 animals each, spread throughout the liquid feeding facility and received 13 times per week a liquid feed distributed by an automated supply system. Environmental temperature was maintained at 24 °C during the whole period. After distribution, pigs fed the 30 °C meal ate faster than pigs delivered 20 or 10 °C meals. It was visually observed that the latter ones agitated the mixture before eating. From d 0 to 52, pigs receiving 30 °C meal had better ADG and FCR than pigs given the 20 °C meal, pigs of the 10 °C meal being intermediate (ADG: 773, 740 and 764 g/d, respectively; P=0.02; FCR: 2.58, 2.69 and 2.61 kg/kg, respectively; P=0.03). Performance was similar among treatments from d 52 to 100 (P>0.10). Overall from d 0 to 100, FCR of pigs distributed the 30 °C feed was 2.2% lower than pigs given the 20 °C or the 10 °C meals (2.69 vs 2.77 and 2.74 kg/kg, respectively; P=0.04). Live weight at d 100 was higher for pigs given 30 °C meal than for pigs fed at 20 °C, pigs with a 10 °C meal being intermediate (110.4, 108.7 and 109.6 kg, respectively; P=0.04). 30 °C pigs tended to have a higher back fat depth than 20 and 10 °C pigs (13.7 vs 12.8 and 13.0 mm, respectively; P=0.07). These results are in agreement with the amount of heat exchange energy required to raise a liquid feed to body temperature. An additional profit of 1.1 € per pig for heated meal vs temp/cold meal was calculated on the basis of the study technical results. Under the economic conditions of 2016, a 2.2% decrease of the FCR could amortize an investment in a renewable energy up to € 5,000 per year in the case of a fattening unit with capacity for 1,500 pigs.

PDF icon Eric Royer et al., 70th EAAP, 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 415
2019

Additive and dominance genomic parameters for backfat thickness in purebred and crossbred pigs

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Mohammadpanah M (Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 291, poster

In pig crossbreeding programs, genetic evaluation has been based predominantly on purebred data accounting only for additive genetic effects, whereas improving crossbred performance is the ultimate goal. Theoretically, a combined crossbred and purebred selection method is advised if genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred populations differ from unity. If dominance effects are large enough, assortative mating strategies can enhance the total genetic values of the offspring. Hence, estimates of genetic parameters for purebreds and crossbreds are needed to assess the best selection crossbreeding scheme strategies. In this study, additive and dominance genetic variance components and additive and dominance genotypic correlations between a Piétrain and a Piétrain × Large White populations were estimated for backfat thickness (BFT). A total of 607 purebreds and 620 crossbred BFT records were analysed with a genotypic bivariate model that included hot carcass weight and inbreeding coefficient as covariates, an additive and a dominance genotypic effects, and a pen nested within batch random effect. Genetic parameters were estimated with EM-REML plus an additional iteration of AIREML to obtain the asymptotic standard deviations of the estimates. The additive genotypic correlation between purebreds and crossbreds was high, 0.82, indicating that the genetic progress attained in the purebreds can mostly be transferred to the crossbreds. Dominance genetic variance represented about 10% of the BFT phenotypic variance in both populations, suggesting that assortative matings could slightly enhance both purebred and crossbred performances. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for the dominance effects could differ between populations since dominance genotypic correlation was 0.49.

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2019

Upgraded EU rapeseed meal improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

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Melo ADB (IRTA, Espagne) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 421, poster

Rapeseed meal (RSM), a by-product of oil industry, contains large amounts of protein but also contains a high fibre content that limit its use to non-ruminant animals. Tail-end dehulled RSM presents high protein content and reduced fibre fraction, resulting more attractive for animal feeding. Also, pelletizing process could contribute to improve the nutritive value of dehulled RSM. The aim of the present study is evaluating the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pig´s diet based on dehulled RSM, combined with die size and steam from pelletizing process. A 2×2×2 factorial design was used with conventional (35% CP) or upgraded RSM (40% CP), 4×40 or 4×60 mm of die size, processed with or without steam. Conventional or upgraded RSM were included in similar proportion (22.5%) as the only protein source and no adjustment of synthetic amino acids (AA) was done.

Diets were provided ad libitum overall the trial, which lasts 49 days. One-hundred forty-four pigs weighing 27.55 kg were allocated at 72 pens, 2 pigs for pen (male and female), totalling 9 blocks of live weight per treatment. At the last week of experiment, faecal samples were collected for 3 days and lyophilized before lab analyses. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility were used as responsive criteria. Pig´s weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved by dehulled RSM. Feed efficiency is improved in pigs fed dehulled RSM, 4×60 mm die size with steam on pelleting process. The digestibility of energy, crude protein, lysine, methionine, threonine and valine is improved in diet based on dehulled RSM and no affected by die size. A greater nutrient content and availability such as found in the diet based on dehulled RSM is crucial to improve animal performance and it was enhanced after pelleting process.

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2019

Application of a precision feeding program in growing pigs: effect on performance and nutrient use

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Ludovic Brossard (INRA) et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 469

Improvement of feed efficiency in growing pigs is a key issue for the economic and environmental sustainability of livestock production. This can be achieved with novel techniques such as precision feeding (PF). Within the Horizon 2020 EU Feed-a-Gene program (grant agreement n°633531), a decision support system (DSS) was developed to implement precision feeding in commercial pig farms. This study aimed to test the functioning of the DSS in practical conditions and the consequences on performance and nutrient use of growing pigs fed ad libitum. Sixty-four pigs were reared from 77 to 161 days of age (34 to 109 kg body weight, BW) in a single pen equipped with an automatic weighing-sorting system and eight automatic feeders allowing to register feed intake and deliver a tailored blend of two diets (A and B with respectively 1.0 and 0.4 g SID Lysine (Lys)/MJ NE, and 9.7 MJ NE/kg) to individual pigs.

Pigs of the control group received a blend providing 0.9 g SID Lysine (Lys)/MJ NE until the average group BW was 65 kg (growing phase) and 0.7 g SID Lys/MJ NE thereafter (finishing phase). For the PF group, the assessment of the SID Lys requirement was performed individually and on a daily basis, based on up to 20 previous records of BW and feed intake. Feed composition was changed accordingly by blending diets A and B in appropriate proportions. Daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio did not differ between treatments for the overall period or per period. During the growing period, the SID Lys intake and the nitrogen intake and excretion were respectively  10.8, 8.8, and 14.4% lower in the PF group compared to the control group (P<0.05). During the finishing period, these values were only numerically lower (difference <2%; P>0.68). This could result from a slightly higher feed intake (+100 g/d, P=0.24) in PF group combined with a SID Lys supply already low in control group. A second experiment will be performed in the same conditions to confirm the potential of the PF using the developed DSS.

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2019

Use of mate allocation in pig crossbreeding schemes: a simulation study

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González-Diéguez D et al., 70th Annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal science (EAAP), 26-30 août 2019, Ghent, Belgique, p. 287

One of the main goals in a crossbreeding scheme is to improve the performance of crossbred population by exploiting heterosis and breed complementarity. Dominance is one of the likely genetic bases of heterosis and, nowadays, estimating dominance effects in genetic evaluations has become feasible in a genomic selection context. Mate allocation strategies that account for inbreeding and/or dominance can be of interest for maximizing the crossbred performance. The objective of this study was to simulate scenarios including or not mate allocation strategies in two-breed pig crossbreeding schemes. The different crossbreeding scenarios have been compared in terms of genetic gain (within-breed) and total genetic value in crossbred populations. The benchmark scenario is a crossbreeding scheme where within-line selection is performed on purebred genomic estimated breeding values and crossbreds come from random matings of the best purebreds. The other subsequent scenarios are conceived to evaluate the potential benefits of accounting for inbreeding, dominance and crossbred performances in the genetic evaluation model. Genomic mate allocation is a promising strategy to improve the crossbred performance.

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2019

Impact of cleaning and disinfection procedures on microbial ecology and Salmonella antimicrobial resistance in a pig slaughterhouse

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Arnaud Bridier (Anses) et al., Scientific Reports, 2019, volume 9, n° 1, 10 septembre, 13 pages

To guarantee food safety, a better deciphering of ecology and adaptation strategies of bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella in food environments is crucial. The role of food processing conditions such as cleaning and disinfection procedures on antimicrobial resistance emergence should especially be investigated. In this work, the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and the microbial ecology of associated surfaces communities were investigated in a pig slaughterhouse before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures. Salmonella were detected in 67% of samples and isolates characterization revealed the presence of 15 PFGE-patterns belonging to five serotypes: S.4,5,12:i:-, Rissen, Typhimurium, Infantis and Derby. Resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and/or chloramphenicol was detected depending on serotypes. 16S rRNA-based bacterial diversity analyses showed that Salmonella surface associated communities were highly dominated by the Moraxellaceae family with a clear site-specific composition suggesting a persistent colonization of the pig slaughterhouse. Cleaning and disinfection procedures did not lead to a modification of Salmonella susceptibility to antimicrobials in this short-term study but they tended to significantly reduce bacterial diversity and favored some genera such as Rothia and Psychrobacter. Such data participate to the construction of a comprehensive view of Salmonella ecology and antimicrobial resistance emergence in food environments in relation with cleaning and disinfection procedures.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49464-8.pdf

2019

Modèle de prévision de la production porcine : à partir des données BDPORC

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Bérengère Lécuyer, Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 500, septembre, synthèse du mois, p. 8

Les données BDPORC sur les mouvements de porcins ont été mobilisées pour modéliser et prédire la production de porcs charcutiers à un horizon de 1 à 5 mois. La part de la variabilité de la production de porcs charcutiers expliquée par le modèle est supérieure à 60 %. Les écarts entre la production réelle et la prévision sont sensibles pour certains mois mais plus réduits à l’échelle du trimestre.

PDF icon Bérengère Lécuyer, Baromètre Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 500, septembre, synthèse du mois, p. 8
2019

Réalité augmentée : un dispositif audio testé en maternité

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Alexia Aubry, Porc Mag (FRA), 2019, n° 545, septembre, p. 40

Des technologies innovantes peuvent aider les éleveurs à enregistrer plus efficacement les performances techniques de leurs porcs, indispensables au suivi et  l'évaluation de leurs résultats économiques.

2019

Toolbox de l'Ifip audite les bâtiments sur smartphone

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Michel Marcon, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 271, septembre, p. 50-51

L’application Toolbox mise au point par l’Ifip propose quatre calculettes pour un auto-audit simple et rapide de la ventilation, du chauffage, des équipements et de la conduite.

PDF icon Michel Marcon, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 271, septembre, p. 50-51
2019

Le led, l’éclairage économe en énergie

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Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 271, septembre, p. 52-53

L’éclairage à leds gagne du terrain en production porcine, aussi bien en rénovation intérieure qu’en construction neuve.

PDF icon Yvonnick Rousselière, Réussir Porc/Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 271, septembre, p. 52-53
2019
Couverture du Porc par les chiffres

Le porc par les chiffres 2019-2020

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Les chiffres clés les plus récents des filières porcines dans le monde et l’UE (production, consommation, cheptel...) et de la filière porcine en France ; les données utiles pour se repérer tout au long de l’année et à avoir toujours sous la main : un outil indispensable à tous !

  • les échanges (import/export),
  • les élevages de porcs (cheptel/régions, commerce et signes de qualité),
  • les coûts des bâtiments, le secteur de l’aliment pour porc,
  • la sélection (truies, insémination, évolutions génétiques),
  • l’abattage (entreprises, classement des carcasses, paiement au TMP),
  • le secteur de la charcuterie (entreprises et produits),
  • la consommation des viandes et la distribution des produits du porc

sous forme de tableaux, cartes, graphiques. 

Un fichier powerpoint contenant les principaux graphiques complète la brochure ; les visuels présentant chaque maillon de la filière peuvent directement servir à la préparation d’interventions techniques. Il vous sera envoyé sur simple demande : ifip@ifip.asso.fr

Edition IFIP, 39 pages, 16 X 24

25,00 €
2019

Validation of a pan-European computed tomography procedure for determining the new EU lean meat content of pigs

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Gérard Daumas (Ifip), Mathieu Monziols (Ifip) et Daiva Ribikauskiene (University of Applied Sciences of Lithuania), 65th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster

A new EU regulation on carcass classification applies from July 2018. The new reference to calibrate the pig classifi cation methods is a lean meat percentage based on total dissection of a half-carcass (LMPtd). Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. 
Daumas and Monziols (2018) calibrated a simple, accurate and robust CT method in order to make it useful internationally and at least in Europe. A trial for approval of grading methods in Lithuania gave the opportunity to validate this CT procedure

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster, PDF icon Gérard Daumas et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, p. 529-530
2019

Addition of vitamin E in pigs feed: could prevent cured-meat promotion of colon carcinogenesis in rats

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Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster

Based on epidemiological studies, excessive consumption of cured meats induces a slight, but significant, increase in the risk of developing colorectal cancer [1]. Among the various hypotheses, recent studies have proposed the central role of heme iron in this positive association. Heme iron catalyzes the formation of genotoxic and cytotoxic nitroso-compound (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation end products (alkenals). Based on the important role of peroxidation and nitrosylation in the effect on cancer risk, our recent studies has made possible to propose a limitation of this effect via the enrichment of cured meat products with vitamin E during their manufacture [2]. In addition, supplementation in pig diet would also appear interesting to protect cured meat from the formation of carcinogenic substances, NOCs and alkenals [3]. In the present study we assess for the first time the effect of adding vitamin E in pig feed on preventing the promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed a sausage-based diet from supplemented animals compare to sausage-based diet from control animals .

PDF icon Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster, PDF icon Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, p. 859-860
2019

Addition of algae in pig feed: influence on technological quality and composition of meat and offal

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Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster

Nowadays, algae progressively emerges in farms as a new generation of natural ingredients that improves immune function and animal health [1].
But, what are the effects of algae addition on meat and offal ? This study assesses the impact of pork feed supplemented in algae on meat quality, its composition, including nutritional compounds in offal.

PDF icon Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, Potsdam/Berlin, Allemagne, poster, PDF icon Aurélie Promeyrat et al., 65th ICOMST, 4-9 août 2019, p. 726-727
2019

Dissecting total genetic variance into additive and dominance components of purebred and crossbred pig traits

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Llibertat Tusell et al., Animal, 23 mai 2019, 11 pages

The partition of the total genetic variance into its additive and non-additive components can differ from trait to trait, and between purebred and crossbred populations. A quantification of these genetic variance components will determine the extent to which it would be of interest to account for dominance in genomic evaluations or to establish mate allocation strategies along different populations and traits. This study aims at assessing the contribution of the additive and dominance genomic variances to the phenotype expression of several purebred Piétrain and crossbred (Piétrain × Large White) pig performances. A total of 636 purebred and 720 crossbred male piglets were phenotyped for 22 traits that can be classified into six groups of traits: growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass composition, meat quality, behaviour, boar taint and puberty. Additive and dominance variances estimated in univariate genotypic models, including additive and dominance genotypic effects, and a genomic inbreeding covariate allowed to retrieve the additive and dominance single nucleotide polymorphism variances for purebred and crossbred performances. These estimated variances were used, together with the allelic frequencies of the parental populations, to obtain additive and dominance variances in terms of genetic breeding values and dominance deviations. Estimates of the Piétrain and Large White allelic contributions to the crossbred variance were of about the same magnitude in all the traits. Estimates of additive genetic variances were similar regardless of the inclusion of dominance. Some traits showed relevant amount of dominance genetic variance with respect to phenotypic variance in both populations (i.e. growth rate 8%, feed conversion ratio 9% to 12%, backfat thickness 14% to 12%, purebreds-crossbreds). Other traits showed higher amount in crossbreds (i.e. ham cut 8% to 13%, loin 7% to 16%, pH semimembranosus 13% to 18%, pH longissimus dorsi 9% to 14%, androstenone 5% to 13% and estradiol 6% to 11%, purebreds-crossbreds). It was not encountered a clear common pattern of dominance expression between groups of analysed traits and between populations. These estimates give initial hints regarding which traits could benefit from accounting for dominance for example to improve genomic estimated breeding value accuracy in genetic evaluations or to boost the total genetic value of progeny by means of assortative mating.

https://www.feed-a-gene.eu/sites/default/files/documents/tusell_2019_JAS_dissecting_total_genetic_variance_into_additive_and_dominance_components_of_purebred_and_crossbred_pig_traits.pdf

2019

Santé des animaux : les limites de la sélection génétique face aux maladies

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Marie-José Mercat, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juillet-août, p. 44-45

Des leviers génétiques existent pour sélectionner des animaux résistants à certains variants d’agents infectieux comme E. coli.

Mais une résistance globale aux maladies, ou simplement à tous les variants d’E. coli, semble illusoire.

PDF icon Marie-José Mercat, Réussir Porc/ Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juillet-août, p. 44-45
2019

Transformer un nourrisseur en distributeur de paille

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Valérie Courboulay, Réussir Porc / Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juilllet/ août, p. 42

L’Ifip a testé à sa statione Romillé des dispositifs pour faciliter la distribution de paille à des porcs charcutiers sur caillebotis.

PDF icon Valérie Courboulay, Réussir Porc / Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juilllet/ août, p. 42
2019

Application Smartphone : la ToolBox, une véritable "Boîte à outils"

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Michel Marcon, Porc Mag (FRA), 2019, n° 544, juillet-août, p. 27

L'Ifip propose aux éleveurs de porcs et à leurs techniciens une boîte à outils numériques utiles pour les aider à l'audit des bâtiments ou à la construction d'un élevage. Elle propose des solutions techniques pour le dimensionnement des bâtiments ou des diagnostics du chauffage et de la ventilation.

2019

Des contrastes régionaux entre l’élevage et l’abattage

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Bérengère Lécuyer, Réussir Porc / Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juillet-août, p. 14-15

Selon les régions françaises, les volumes abattus ne correspondent pas toujours au nombre de porcs produits. Cette situation refl ète des dynamiques de production et d’abattage contrastées.

PDF icon Bérengère Lécuyer, Réussir Porc / Tech Porc (FRA), 2019, n° 270, juillet-août, p. 14-15
2019

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