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Pork cuts composition measured by scanner as influenced by sex and halothane genotype

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 54-55

The aim of this study was to quantify the main effects influencing the tissue composition measured by computed tomography (CT) of pork cuts. A representative sample of the French pig slaughtering was selected in three abattoirs and stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females). An ear sample was analysed for Halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were CT scanned. Images were thresholded in order to determine muscle, fat and bone weight. Sex and Hal effects on tissues proportions were analysed by variance analysis. Interaction between sec and >Hal was never significant. Sex was significant on all the tissues proportions in the cuts, except the bone % in ham and loin. Hal was significant on all the tissueds proportions in the cuts, except the fat % in shoulder and the bone % in belly. Sex had a major effect (1 standard deviaiton) on the muscle % in the loin and the fat % in the shoulder. The important effects of sex and Hal on pork cuts composition should be taken into account by pork industry for sorting cuts and carcasses and for selecting suppliers.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p.
2017

Vision versus reflectance technology to estimate pork cuts composition

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 115-116

The objective of this article is to compare the precision of two carcass classification methods to assess the lean meat percentage (LM%) of the major pork cuts. One method is automatic by vision (CSB Image-Meater®, IM) and the other is semi-automatic by reflectance (CGM). A sample of 241 carcasses, comprising 50% of females and 50% of castrated males, was measured by both methods. The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were weighed and scanned by X-Ray tomography. Each LM% was regressed on the one hand on the two CGM thicknesses and, on the other hand, on the four IM thicknesses. The thickness M4 of IM was not significant. The hierarchy of the cuts has been preserved in therms of increasing residual standard deviation (RSD): ham, shoulder, loin and belly. The RSDrose about 15% for the limbs and 30-35% for the trunk. The help of carcass classification for directing cutting should turn out to be weakened.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Conséquences of the future EU regulation on pig carcass classification

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 277-278

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the main consequences of the change of the EU regulation on pig carcass classification, in particular the change of the reference lean meat percentage (LMP). A sample of 29 pigs was selected in two abattoirs and stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females). The left half carcasses as well as the four main cuts were scanned by computed tomography (CT). All cuts were then dissected. CT images were thresholded in order to determine lean meat. The future reference (LP in the carcass) will be 2.8% lowe rthan the present one (LMP in the fourmain cuts), i.E. about 1.7 percentage points. The French CT procedure could be fitted via a multiplicative factor of 0.965. This procedure is robust to the main factors - sex, genotype, fatness - influencing the classification. This would allow to use this scaling factor without new dissections for the future trials for approval of classification methods in France. It could be used too in other countries interested in this CT procedure.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

NIR and VIS-NIR spectroscopy to predict PSE-LIKE zones of ham

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Antoine Vautier et al., 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017

The aim of the study was to evaluate NitFom´s ability to predict PSE-like zones, a muscle structure defect in ham, which at present can only be detected by visual inspection after deboning. NitFom is an on-line fast device based on NIR spectroscopy dedicated to the meat industry. In comparison with the Vis-NIR Labspec4 spectrometer, the overall misclassification level of the NitFom is higher (13.0% vs 26.1%). However, misclassification of deboned ham deeply affected by PSE-like zones is lower for both devices (25% of false positives for NitFom). This level of accuracy could be satisfactory and useful for the meat industry, considering that the use of NitFom allow sorting of bone-in hams. The NitFom accuracy for PSE-like zone classification might be improved by expanding the range of spectrum analyzed by adding the visible wavelengths.

PDF icon Antoine Vautier et al., 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Prediction of drip loss and ultimate pH in pork Semimembranosus by the Nitfom

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Antoine Vautier et al., 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017

Most of the NIR spectrometers available are not suited for on line measurements in slaughterhouses. The aim of the study was to test the ability of a device dedicated to industrial measurement (NitFom, Frontmatec) for prediction of drip loss and ultimate pH. A calibration model fitting was satisfactory (drip loss, R²=0.59 and pHu, R²=0.70) and the prediction accuracy levels for drip loss were similar to calibration results found with the Labspec4, a laboratory Vis-NIR spectrometer (NitFom, rmsecv=1.5% and Labspec4, 1.7%). This study revealed that prediction of drip loss by NIRS could be a good alternative to measurement of ultimate pH for drip loss sorting.

PDF icon Antoine Vautier et al., 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Nutritional values of 11 pork secondary meat-cuts and liver

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Martine Carlier et al., 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017

Analyses to establish nutrition labelling defined by the EU Regulation 1169/2011, i.e fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, sugars, proteins and salt were applied for 11 meat-cuts and liver from for pork carcasses commonly pigs produced in France. The nutritional data are compared to those from earlier studies.

PDF icon Martine Carlier et al., 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017
2017

Une nouvelle version pour MéthaSim

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Pascal Levasseur, Porc Mag (FRA), n° 523, septembre, p. 57

Biométhane. L'Ifip propose une nouvelle version de son outil MéthaSim, le calculateur qui simule l'intérêt économique de l'injection de biométhane et le coût du traitement des digestats. Cette actualisation tient compte des derniers tarifs d'achat de l'électricité et intègre une mise à jour des coûts d'investissements et de fonctionnement.

2017

Comparison of pig classification results between entire and castrated males

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Gérard Daumas, 68th Annual meeting of the European federation of animal science (EAAP), Tallinn, Estonie, 28 août-1er septembre 2017, poster

Entire male is the alternative to pig castration chosen by some groups in Europe and in France by the leader cooperative. Since 2013 the French production of entire males has been increasing. Although the advantage in carcass composition is well known precise estimates are not easily available. Statistics per sex are regularly published by the French regional classification organisations. The aim of this work is to compare the national classification results of entire males with those of castrated males.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas, 68th EAAP, Tallinn, Estonie, 28 août-1er septembre 2017, poster
2017

Actualisation des consommations d’eau individuelles et journalières des truies gestantes

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Yvonnick Rousselière et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

Plusieurs paramètres peuvent modifier le comportement d’abreuvement des truies : type, réglage ou accès à l’abreuvoir, qualité et quantité d’aliment, etc. Ainsi, la bibliographie présente des consommations moyennes d’eau allant de 5 à 20 litres par jour et par truie. Ce poster propose une actualisation de ces données à partir des nouveaux équipements connectés d’abreuvement.

PDF icon Yvonnick Rousselière et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017
2017

Stabilité des antibiotiques en présence de biocides désinfectants dans l’eau d’abreuvement des porcs

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Anne Hémonic et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

En élevage, l’eau d’abreuvement est fréquemment traitée par un biocide désinfectant afin d’en améliorer la qualité bactériologique. Cette eau peut également servir de vecteur d’antibiotiques.

Cependant, la compatibilité entre les biocides désinfectants et les antibiotiques est mal documentée. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer la stabilité des antibiotiques en présence de désinfectants dans l’eau de boisson.

PDF icon Anne Hémonic et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017
2017

Intérêts comparés des vaccinations PCV2 et Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae combinées ou Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seule chez les porcs en croissance

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Isabelle Corrégé et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

Objectif : comparer l’impact sur les performances des porcs en engraissement, la virémie et les lésions pulmonaires de la vaccination combinée PCV2 et M. hyopneumoniae avec la vaccination M. hyopneumoniae seule dans un élevage avec une forme subclinique de PCV2 et une circulation de M. hyopneumoniae.

PDF icon Isabelle Corrégé et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster
2017

ELFE, une base de données pour caractériser les émissions gazeuses

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Nadine Guingand et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

ELFE est une base de données issue d’un consortium entre différents acteurs de la recherche et du développement.

Elle a pour but de produire des facteurs d’émission d’ammoniac, Gaz à Effet de Serre, particules et odeurs par itinéraire technique pour les élevages d’herbivores, porcs et volailles, en intégrant les différentes étapes des conduites animales et de gestion des effluents (bâtiment, stockage, traitement, épandage et pâturage).

PDF icon Nadine Guingand et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster
2017

Devenir de six antibiotiques dans les lisiers de porc

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Pascal Levasseur et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

Les antibiotiques administrés aux animaux d’élevage se retrouvent en partie dans leurs déjections. Tant qu’ils sont actifs, ils peuvent favoriser le développement de bactéries résistantes dans le lisier ou ses issues destinés à être épandus sur les sols agricoles. Cette étude vise donc à analyser le devenir de polypeptides, tétracyclines, pénicillines et macrolides, au cours des étapes les plus courantes de la gestion des lisiers.

PDF icon Pascal Levasseur et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster
2017

Un nouvel outil pour l'aide à la décision d'investissement en élevage porcin

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Alexia Aubry et Yvon Salaün, 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

Le modèle de simulation PORSIM, initialement développé par l’IFIP dans les années 80 pour analyser les projets de création d’élevage porcin, a été entièrement repensé pour s’adapter aux attentes des utilisateurs, dans un tout autre contexte de production.
Objectif actuel : éclairer des choix d’investissement dans un élevage existant.

PDF icon Alexia Aubry et Yvon Salaün, 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017
2017

Perception et prise en compte par les éleveurs du regard de la société sur l'élevage

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Morgane Coty et al., 49es Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris, 31 janvier et 1er février 2017, poster

L’élevage est confronté à de fortes interpellations sociales. Le projet ACCEPT (CASDAR 2014-2017) a pour objectif de mieux comprendre les déterminants des controverses et mobilisations collectives autour de l’élevage en France. Pour cela, il analyse les différents regards portés sur l’élevage dans la société française. Ce poster présente les résultats d’une enquête auprès d’éleveurs sur la manière dont ils perçoivent et prennent en compte le regard que porte la société sur l’élevage.

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2017

Accumulation of -hexabromocyclododecane ( -HBCDD) in muscles of fast- and slow-growing broiler

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Catherine Jondreville et al., XVIIth European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and EGG Products, XXIIIth European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat, 3-5 septembre 2017, Edimbourgh, Ecosse, abstract

Hexabromocyclodecane (HBCDD is a brominated flame retard included in some insulating materials used in livestock buildings, which has been detected in meat. The aim of the current study is to investigate the of this lipohilic contaminant in fast- (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers. First, an experiment involving FG and SG broilers exposed to HBCDD through feed during 42 and 82 days, respectiively, showed that breast muscle (BM, Pectoralis major) is similary concentrated in HBCDD in the two strains, while leg muscles (LM, thigh + drumstick including intermusclar fat) was 5 and 10 times more concentrated than BM in FG and SG broilers, respectively. Second, a physiogically based pharmacokinetic model was developed and validated using the previous data.
Different compartments (total and lipid weights) were represented : plasma, liver, BM  and LM, adipose tissue and the rest of the animal. After ingested HBCDD was absorbed and one part was eliminated by hepatic metabolism, it was distributed to tissues by the plasma, through a partition coefficient defined as the ratio between their respective neutral lipid concentrations. The model, calibrated for different strains and sex, will be used to assess the risk of meat contamination by HBCDD in different chicken production systems.

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2017

Vision versus reflectance technology for deviations for sex and halothane genotype in pig carcass classification

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Gérard Daumas et al. 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 50-51

This work aims to compare the systematic deviations for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations between pig classification methods by automatic vision and semi-automatic relfectance. A sample of 209 carcasses, stratified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females), was measured by CSB Image-Meater® (IM) and CGM. An car sample was analysed for halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were weighed and scanned by X-ray tomography in order to detemrine lean meat percentage (LMP). For each device the LMP was regressed on the fat and muscle depths included in the official equations. For each equation were calculated the systematic deviations per level of the sex and Hal factors by mean difference between predicted and observed values. The LMP overestimation for castrated males increased from 0.4% with CGM to 0.7% with IM. The LMP overestimation for non-sensitive homosygotes Hal, not significant with CGM, rose to 0.5%. Systematic deviations for sexual types could be cancelled at least by a differentiated offset in the prediction equation.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et al. 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 50-51
2017

Estimation by vision of pork cuts composition for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p. 52-53

This work aims to quantify the systematic deviations for sex and halothane genotype subpopulations in the estimation by automatic vision of pork cuts composition. A sample of 208 carcasses, startified according to sex (50% castrated males and 50% females), was measured on line by the classification method CSB Image-Meater® (IM). An ear sample was analysed for halothane gene (Hal). The left sides were cut according to the EU procedure and the four main cuts were CT scanned  in order to determine the lean meat percentage (LMP) in each cut. These LMPs were regressed on six IM potential predictors and the carcass weight. For each equation were calculated the systematic deviations per level of the sex and Hal factors by mean difference between predicted and observed values. The absolute deviation per sexual types was the lowest (0.5%) in ham and the highest (1.4%) in belly. The deviations per Hal genotype ranged from 0.3% in shoulder to 0.8% in belly. In all models females and Hal heterozygotes were underestimated and vice-versa. The deviations per Hal genotype were about the half than per sex. The deviations per sex could be removed by at least a different intercept in the prediction equations.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 63e ICOMST, Cork, Irlande, 13-18 août 2017, p.
2017

Nutritional evaluation of dehulling and thermal treatments for production of expeller soybean meal

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Carré et al., 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of animal Science, 28 août- 1er septembre 2017, Tallinn, Estonie, p. 318, session 33 : Feed-a-Gene, abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different processes on the nutritional quality of expeller soybean meal (SBM). Extrusion or cooking processes in combination with dehulling and pressing were used to produce 4 partly defatted SBM with low residual trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. European soybeans were ground using a roller mill, then dehulled or not with a cleaner separator. The 2 products were either extruded using single-screw extrusion at 140°C at around 100 kg/h (EP), or cooked at 150°C during 60 minutes (FCP) after flaking. All beans were then pressed to extract the oil. Extrusion allowed a higher oil extraction than cooking (residual oil: 4.9 vs 8.6 g/100 g DM in whole EP and FCP meals, and 5.2 vs 6.4 g/100 g DM in dehulled EP and FCP meals, respectively). The dehulling step resulted in an increase of almost 3 g/100 g protein (58.8 and 58.4 g/100 g for dehulled EP and FCP meals, respectively, and 56.0 and 55.8 g/100 g for whole EP and FCP meals, respectively, on a fat free DM basis). The KOH protein solubility was increased by dehulling for EP (70 vs 76%) and FCP processes (82 vs 89%, for whole and dehulled meals, respectively). The TI values were 2.6, 3.5, 3.6, and 7.6 TIU/mg for whole and dehulled EP and FCP meals, respectively. The lower dryer outlet temperature measured for the dehulled beans compared to whole beans (90 vs. 97°C) may explain the lower TI inactivation for the dehulled FCP meal. The amino acid and reactive lysine content and the in vitro rate of degradation based on hydrolysis of protein bonds (pH-stat) are determined and related to the chemical composition to evaluate the nutritional value of the meals. All 4 processes may produce good quality SBM with 46-52 g/100 g crude protein, 4-8 g/100 g residual oil, and a TI content below 8 TIU/mg. Extruded-expelled SBM produced in medium-sized crushing plants from local and GMO-free crops have a nutritional and economic potential in Europe. This study is part of the Feed-a-Gene project and received funding from the European Union's H2020 program under grant agreement n° 633531.

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2017

Inlfuence of a dynamic meal feeding approach on weaning performance and health of piglets

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Eric Royer et al., 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of animal Science, 28 août- 1er septembre 2017, Tallinn, Estonie, p. 318, session 29, p. 292, abstract

A total of 936 weaned piglets were used in three experiments to study the effects of a dynamic meal feeding at weaning piglets were affected by post-weaning colibacillosis and edema disease (ED) of Escherichia coli O141:K85 in Exp. 1 and 2, whereas this infection was controlled in Exp 3. In Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, a phase 1 diet was offered ad libitum with free access to hoppers (control), or given in long trouhgs seven times daily from 08:00 am to 7:30 pm in quantities adjusted each day to appetite (7M), or restricted (R-7M). In Exp.3, the treatments were (1) control, (2) eleven meals in troughs from 07:00 am to 10:30 pm with quantities adjusted after each meal to appetite (11M), and (3) 11M with a mixing strategy at weaning limiting the number of litters per pen (1M-FAM). The dynamic phase duration was 13, 9 and 10 d in Exp. 1, 2 and 3, respectively, after which, using only hoppers, all piglets received ad libitum the phase 1 diet to d 14. In Exp.1. a too restrictive adjustment of feed supply from d0 to 14 rsulted in lower ADFI for 7M or R-7M pigs than for control pigs (305, 294 and 349 g/d, respectively; P<0.001). However, ED outbreaks did not differ between treatments (mean=3% of piglets). In Exp 2, ADFI was reduced for 7M pigs (-4%; P>0.05) and for R-73 pigs (-8%; P=0.02) compared to  control poigs (279, 257 and 291 g/d, respectively), but was unaffected from 9 to 14. ED outbreaks from 12 to 15, resulted in an equal number of dead or sick pigs for 7M and R-7M treatments (7%), which was higher than for control (3%). In Exp.3, ADFI from d0 to 10 was similar for piglets offered 11M, 11M-FAM and control treatments (289, 270 and 283 g/d, respectively). Video monitoring showed that the number of animals with feeding intake by meal period was increased at d 1 for 11 M and 11M-FAM piglets compared to control piglets (75, 81 and 67%, respectively; P<0.01). By reproducing the behavior of suckling piglets, the distribution of meals in long troughs may biefty enhance the feed intake during the first two days after weaning. The study did not confirm that decreasing or distributing the feed intake may control the edema disease.

PDF icon Eric Royer et al., 68th Annual Meeting of the EAAP, 28 août- 1er septembre 2017, Tallinn, Estonie, session 29, p. 292, abstract
2017

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